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Section 2.. Reasons To Believe/The Bible/
Apocrypha, Lost Books, Gnostic Gospels

 

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 The Septuagint

Carol Brooks

Edited by Vicki Narlee

ON THIS PAGE

Introduction and The Gist Of The Story of The Letter of Aristeas

An Inspired Version?
The Embellishments Vs. The Original Writings

Historical Improbabilities And Errors In The Letter of Aristeas

Fraudulent Work Or Sometimes Incompetent Translation?

The Masoretic Text and the Dead Sea Scrolls
Evidence of Early Reworking of The "Inspired" Alexandrian Version.

Differences Between The Septuagint & The Hebrew Bible

Did The New Testament Writers Usually Quote The Septuagint?

Finally

It Is Written

 

Introduction
The Septuagint, often simply referred to using the Roman numerals LXX (also sometimes called the Alexandrian version), is the oldest surviving Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible. In fact, as far as we know, it was the first attempt to translate the Hebrew Scriptures into an Indo-European language. (Note that the terms Septuagint and LXX are used interchangeably throughout this article)

The "Septuagint” (seventy in Latin) was so named because, according to an ancient document called the Letter of Aristeas, it is said that 72 Jewish scholars were commissioned to carry out the task of translating the Hebrew Bible into Koine, or common Greek. (Presumably the number 72 is simply rounded down to 70). This happened during the reign of Ptolemy II Philadelphus,  the king of Ptolemaic Egypt from 283 BC to 246 BC, under whose reign, the material and literary splendor of the Alexandrian court was at its height.

The author of the Letter of Aristeas, claimed to be a Greek official in the court of King Ptolemy, and one of the leaders of the mission to the Jewish high priest, Eleazar. In this letter, he was, supposedly giving his brother, Philocrates, a detailed account of the events.
 

The Gist Of The Story of The Letter of Aristeas
The letter relates how the king's librarian, Demetrius of Phaleron, told the king that the laws of the Jews well deserved a place in Ptolemy's library of more than two hundred thousand books. However, Demetrius added that the laws would need to be translated from Hebrew. Accordingly the king ordered a letter to be written to the Jewish High Priest (§ 9-11) hand delivered along with lavish gifts, which are described in detail (§ 33-34). As a gesture of goodwill, he also freed the Jews who had been taken into captivity by his predecessors (§ 21-25).

The High Priest, Eleazar, obviously agreeing to undertake the translation, chose seventy-two Israelites, six men from each of the twelve tribes, who traveled back to Alexandria with the king's envoys. On arrival in Alexandria, the 72 translators were conducted to the island of Pharos, where everything they wanted was furnished for them on a lavish scale (§ 304). The 72 scholars then set to work translating, then comparing, their results. Whatever they agreed upon, was copied out under the direction of the librarian Demetrius (§ 302). Interestingly, and very neatly rounding off the story, this task was supposedly finished in 72 days (§ 307).

When the work was completed, Demetrius assembled the Jewish population in the place where the translation had been made and, in the presence of the translators, read it to them (§ 308). After the books had been read, the priests, the elders of the translators, the Jewish community, and the leaders of the people, stood up and declared that since so excellent, sacred, and accurate a translation had been made, it was only right that it should remain as it was. No alteration should be made ... either by adding, changing, or deleting, any of the text. This was considered a very wise precaution to ensure that the book might be preserved, unchanged, for all the future time . (§ 310-311)

The king then lavishly rewarded the translators and, in a letter, urged the High Priest not to hinder any of the men if they wished to return to Alexandria, for he counted it a great privilege to enjoy the society of such learned men, and he would rather lavish his wealth upon them, than upon vanities (§ 322)

The letter can be read in it's entirety HERE (http://www.ccel.org/c/charles/otpseudepig/aristeas.htm)


Genesis to Deuteronomy
Strictly speaking, the term "Septuagint" should only be applied to the original translation of the Torah, or the five books of the Law which, according to the Letter of Aristeas, was the original intent of 'King Ptolemy, whose letter to the High Priest Eleazar allegedly said... [Emphasis Added]

    "I have determined that your law shall be translated from the Hebrew tongue which is in use amongst you into the Greek language, that these books may be added to the other royal books in my library. It will be a kindness on your part and a regard for my zeal if you will select six elders from each of your tribes, men of noble life and skilled in your law and able to interpret it, that in questions of dispute we may be able to discover the verdict in which the majority agree, for the investigation is of the highest possible importance. [1]

To which the High Priest supposedly wrote back, saying... [Emphasis Added]

     Immediately therefore I offered sacrifices on behalf of you, your sister, your children, and your friends, and all the people prayed that your plans might prosper continually, and that Almighty God might preserve your kingdom in peace with honour, and that the translation of the holy law might prove advantageous to you and be carried out successfully. In the presence of all the people I selected six elders from each tribe, good men and true, and I have sent them to you with a copy of our law. It will be a kindness, O righteous king, if you will give instruction that as soon as the translation of the law is completed, the men shall be restored again to us in safety. Farewell.'  [2]

In the following centuries, Christian authors widened the work of the seventy to include all the books of the Hebrew Bible, and then some. For example, we know that in his Dialogue with Trypho, Justin Martyr mentioned the "translation of the 70 elders", referring to a passage in Isaiah, not the Pentateuch.

And this was not the only enhancement made to the original story...


An Inspired Version?

The Embellishments
In his Antiquities of the Jews (XII:2), Jewish historian Josephus (37 A.D. – 100 A.D.) paraphrased about a third of the Letter of Aristeas [3]. However, his account closely follows the original letter, and does not claim the work was, in any way, inspired.

However, as time went on, the story was repeated, with considerable and far reaching embellishments, by Philo of Alexandria (20 BC – 50 AD), and various other Jewish and Christian sources. According to the Jewish web site of Orthodox Union, the Talmud, defined as "The most significant collection of the Jewish oral tradition interpreting the Torah" [4], states,

    'King Ptolemy once gathered 72 Elders. He placed them in 72 chambers, each of them in a separate one, without revealing to them why they were summoned. He entered each one's room and said: 'Write for me the Torah of Moshe, your teacher.' God put it in the heart of each one to translate identically as all the others did' (Tractate Megillah 9).

    Ptolemy found that each translation was exactly the same as the other. Even in places where the Sages intentionally altered the literal translation, the results were still identical; this constituted an "open miracle" and public sanctification of God's Name. [5]

Although the original letter has the translators comparing their work, arriving at a version they all agreed on, both Philo (a Jewish philosopher, born in Alexandria. who sought to reconcile Judaism with Greek philosophy), and Irenaeus (bishop of Lyons) [Footnote I], went with the Talmudic version, which stated that each of the translators worked separately, yet, presumably under Divine inspiration, when they compared their work each morning, they found that each had translated the passage exactly the same.


The Original Writings
In the second book of Timothy, Paul said..

    (15) And that from a babe thou hast known the sacred writings which are able to make thee wise unto salvation through faith which is in Christ Jesus. (16) Every scripture inspired of God is also profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, for instruction which is in righteousness. (17) That the man of God may be complete, furnished completely unto every good work. [2 Timothy 3:15-17]

As said by Robertson's Word Pictures, verse 16 is better translated "every scripture is inspired of God and profitable...."

The word "inspiration" is the Greek theopneustos, which is derived from two other Greek words... theos ‘God’, and pneo ‘breath’. In other words, the Scriptures are "God breathed". This does not mean that the Bible is a verbally dictated book, but that both writers and their writings were controlled by God. The Bible is a revelation from God written by men who were divinely guided.

It has to be borne in mind that, when it comes to the Bible, only the original writing can be considered inspired. Of necessity, the Word has been translated into many different languages, including several English translations, none of which are perfect. Later translators have come along and corrected some of the errors.

Which raises a couple of questions...

When there were no recorded miraculous happenings connected with the original writing of the Old and the New Testament why, as claimed, did astonishing miracles happen when people sat down to translate the originals. And were none of the later translations important enough to warrant Divine intervention in the form of the miraculous?

Many Christians, who believe the story of the miraculous translation, come to the conclusion that the LXX was Divinely inspired. Page 310 of The Oxford Companion to the Bible, says

     "In Christian eyes, the legend of the Septuagint's miraculous origin, first told in the Letter of Aristeas, then elaborated by Philo, and further embellished by Christian authors such as Justin Martyr, Irenaeus of Lyons, Tertullian, and Augustine, even rendered the Septuagint superior to the Hebrew original."

This is certainly true for the Greek Orthodox church. The website of St John's Orthodox Church in Colchester, England, quotes Metropolitan Kallistos of Diokleia (an English bishop in the Greek Orthodox Ecumenical Patriarchate and a contemporary Eastern Orthodox theologian) who, according to the church web site, "very simply and clearly sets out the position of the Greek Old Testament" in his book, The Orthodox Church, [Emphasis Added]

    ‘The Orthodox Church has the same New Testament as the rest of Christendom. As its authoritative text for the Old Testament it uses the ancient Greek translation known as the Septuagint. Where this differs from the Hebrew text (which happens quite often), Orthodox believe that the changes in the Septuagint were made under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, and are to be accepted as part of God's continuing revelation.’ [6]

If God is giving us continuing revelation, then we have absolutely no assurance that the Septuagint is His final word, and that He will not give us yet another 'inspired' version, which will differ from both the Hebrew Old Testament, and the LXX.

Augustine certainly regarded the Greek Septuagint as being influenced by the Holy Spirit, and was not happy with Jerome's preference for the original Hebrew Old Testament. In his words...  

    Now among translations themselves the Italian (Itala) is to be preferred to the others, for it keeps closer to the words without prejudice to clearness of expression. And to correct the Latin we must use the Greek versions, among which the authority of the Septuagint is preeminent as far as the Old Testament is concerned; for it is reported through all the more learned churches that the seventy translators enjoyed so much of the presence and power of the Holy Spirit in their work of translation, that among that number of men there was but one voice [7]

But then again, what Augustine thought is barely a factor since the list of issues he was wrong about, is much longer than the ones he was right about. For example, He was one of the presiding bishops at the council of Hippo which listed, and approved, a canon of Scripture that includes the apocrypha, and almost exactly corresponds to the modern Roman Catholic canon. This list was then endorsed by the council of Carthage in 397 A.D. at which Augustine was also one among the forty-four bishops who signed the proceedings. [See The Canon of scripture and The Apocrypha And More about Augustine]

So lets see if the whole story of Divine inspiration is even credible, based as it is on embellishments made to the original letter.


Historical Improbabilities And Errors In The Letter of Aristeas
The problem is that the Letter of Aristeas, riddled as it is with historical improbabilities and errors, is now generally regarded as pseudepigrapha, a falsely attributed work "whose real author attributed it to a figure of the past."

Sacrifices Offered On Behalf Of A Pagan King
In the letter, the High Priest in Jerusalem is supposed to have replied to king Ptolemy's request, saying ...[Emphasis Added]

    Immediately therefore I offered sacrifices on behalf of you, your sister, your children, and your friends, and all the people prayed that your plans might prosper continually, and that Almighty God might preserve your kingdom in peace with honour, and that the translation of the holy law might prove advantageous to you and be carried out successfully. In the presence of all the people I selected six elders from each tribe, good men and true, and I have sent them to you with a copy of our law. It will be a kindness, O righteous king, if you will give instruction that as soon as the translation of the law is completed, the men shall be restored again to us in safety. Farewell.'  [2]

The Old Testament animal sacrifices were not undertaken on man's whim, but were set out in the book of Leviticus, covering the why, when, and where in great detail. It is impossible that the High Priest in Jerusalem flouted, or ignored, these God given commandments, and took it upon himself to offer a sacrifice on behalf of a pagan (Egyptian... no less) king.


Historical Errors in The Letter of Aristeas
The Septuagint is claimed to have been translated during the reign of Ptolemy II Philadelphus of Alexandria, Egypt. His librarian, Demetrius of Phalerum, supposedly persuaded the king to obtain a copy of the Hebrew Scriptures. Verse 9 of the letter says

     Demetrius of Phalerum, the president of the king's library, received vast sums of money, for the purpose of collecting together, as far as he possibly could, all the books in the world

It is true that Ptolemy II Philadelphus was the king of Ptolemaic Egypt from 283 BCE to 246 BCE. However, Demetrius of Phaleron, once head of the administration of Athens, lived in Alexandria during the reign of Ptolemy I Soter, a Macedonian general under Alexander the Great, who became ruler of Egypt (323 BC – 283 BC) and founder of both the Ptolemaic Kingdom and the Ptolemaic Dynasty. Demetrius was sent into exile to Upper Egypt on Ptolemy II Philadelphus' accession to the throne, and died soon after. He could, therefore, not have been in office as the administrator of the library during Ptolemy II 's reign.

According to the letter, when the envoys arrived in Alexandria, they were greeted by the king who, in his speech, said [Emphasis Added]

     It was right, men of God, that I should first of all pay my reverence to the books for the sake of which I summoned you here and then, when I had done that, to extend the right-hand of friendship to you. It was for this reason that I did this first. I have enacted that this day, on which you arrived, shall be kept as a great day and it will be celebrated annually throughout my life time. It happens also that it is the anniversary of my naval victory over Antigonus (§180-181)

The battle of Cos, fought between the fleets of Ptolemy II of Egypt and Antigonus of Macedonia, is generally dated to 258 BC., and is considered the decisive battle of the Second Syrian War. While very little detail is known of the battle, we do know that Antigonus was badly outnumbered, but still won a crushing victory. In the peace treaty that concluded the war (255 BC), Ptolemy was forced to surrender most of his Aegean possessions. Therefore, the reference to the "naval victory over Antigonus" is historically incorrect. [8]


Captive Jews?
Besides which the letter says that king Ptolemy freed the Jews who had been taken into captivity by his predecessors (§ 21-25). But, according to the Jewish historian Josephus, the Jews had been very well treated by Alexander the Great and his successors, the Ptolemies. Josephus wrote,

    “... Alexander {the Great}, upon finding the readiness of the Jews {in Egypt} in assisting him against the Egyptians, and as a reward for such assistance, gave them equal privileges in this city (Alexandria) with the Grecians themselves which honorary reward continued among them under his successors... also gave them this farther privilege that they should be called Macedonians.” [9].


Alexandria
All the events of the 72 scholars who translated the Septuagint supposedly took place in Alexandria. Although the Lighthouse of Alexandria was one of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world, and the Alexandrian library, was probably the largest of the time, nevertheless Alexandria was a pagan city, founded around c. 331 BC by Alexander the Great. It remained Egypt's capital for nearly a thousand years, until the Muslim conquest of Egypt in AD 641, and, even today, remains the second-largest city of Egypt.

Let us take three facts into consideration...

    1) Although Ptolemy I Soter founder of the Ptolemaic Dynasty, was a Macedonian general under Alexander the Great, he took the title of ‘pharaoh’ in 305/4 BC. In fact, the Egyptians soon accepted the Ptolemies as the successors to the pharaohs of independent Egypt, which they ruled until the Roman conquest of 30 BC. The point is that King Ptolemy II Philadelphus (285-246) was considered pharaoh of Egypt, in fact he was the pharaoh responsible for the Pharos Lighthouse, which was finished about 280 BC, during his reign.

However, the Hebrew Torah is ruthlessly anti-Egyptian. A large part of the Torah, or first five books of the Bible, is the story of the slavery and oppression of the Hebrew people by the Egyptians, and their supernatural delivery, which included various plagues brought down on the Egyptians, including the slaying of their first-born sons.

One has to wonder how much this story would have appealed to the 'pharaoh' of Egypt. In fact it seems almost laughable that Letter of Aristeas states that the whole book was read over to him (the king) and he was "greatly astonished" at the spirit of the lawgiver (§ 312).

Is this possible? Of course it is.

Is it probable? No it is not.


In The Final Analysis
, taking all factors into consideration, it seems reasonably clear that the story of the seventy elders who translated the Septuagint is a work of fiction.

And, if there never were 72 translators commissioned by king Ptolemy, then they certainly did not individually, and miraculously, come up with identical wording. Therefore, there is absolutely no grounds on which to base the claim that the Septuagint is an inspired version.


Fraudulent Work Or Sometimes Incompetent Translation?
However, just because much of the letter is not based on fact, does not necessarily mean that, as some claim, the Septuagint is a fraudulent work, foisted on the world by Christian theologian, Origen of Alexandria, (185—254 AD) at least a century and a half after Christ. In fact, the LXX may have emerged in the synagogues of Alexandria.

According to Josephus, a large number of Jews settled in Alexandria at the beginning of the third century B.C.E., in fact, it is said that two of the five quarters of Alexandria "were inhabited by Jews, and synagogues existed in every part of the city" [10]. Therefore, the more probable story is that the project was initiated not by the king, but by the Egyptian Jewish community, which needed a Greek translation for its own requirements. As said by Bruce Metzger, professor emeritus at Princeton Theological Seminary, who was well known for his work in New Testament textual criticism. [Emphasis Added]

     The language of the version is similar to the Greek used in vernacular papyri found in Egypt and contains Egyptian words. This suggests that the translators were Alexandrian and not Palestinian Jews. [11] [Also See Footnote II]

In other words, the first five books of Moses were translated into Greek by Hellenistic Jews living in Alexandria, Egypt, during the time of the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus. This goes a long way in explaining why the translators often showed an "insufficient knowledge of Hebrew, or a failure to grasp the sense of the context". They were losing touch with the Hebrew language and needed the Law in a language they probably used on a daily basis... Greek.

Henry Barclay Swete, an English Biblical scholar, and onetime Professor of Divinity at Cambridge, said [All Emphasis Added]

    Strictly speaking the Alexandrian Bible is not a single version, but a series of versions produced at various times and by translators whose ideals were not altogether alike. Internal evidence' of this fact may be found in the varying standards of excellence which appear in different books or groups of books. The Pentateuch is on the whole a close and serviceable translation; the Psalms and more especially the Book of Isaiah show obvious signs of incompetence. The translator of Job was perhaps more familiar with Greek pagan literature than with Semitic poetry; the translator of Daniel indulges at times in a Midrashic paraphrase. The version of Judges which appears in our oldest Greek uncial MS. has been suspected by a recent critic of being a work of the 4th century A.D.; the Greek Ecclesiastes savours of the school of Aquila~ When we come to details, the evidence in favour of a plurality of translators is no less decisive. A comparison of certain passages which occur in separate contexts distinctly reveals the presence of different hands. [12]

    "... the reader of the Septuagint must expect to find a large number of actual blunders, due in part perhaps to faulty archetype, but chiefly to the misreading or misunderstanding of the archetype by the translators. Letters or clauses have often been transposed; omissions occur which may be explained by homoioteleuton; still more frequently the translation has suffered through an insufficient knowledge of Hebrew or a failure to grasp the sense of the context. It follows that the student must be constantly on his guard against errors which may easily result from too ready an acceptance of the evidence offered by the Alexandrian version. Taken as a whole, and judged in the light of the circumstances under which it was produced, it is a monument of the piety, the skill, and the knowledge of the Egyptian Jews who lived under the Ptolemies, and it is an invaluable witness to the pre-Christian text of the Old Testament. But whether for textual or for hermeneutical (explanatory) purposes it must be used with caution and reserve, as the experience of the Ancient Church shews [13]


The Masoretic Text
The most commonly used English translations of the Old Testament have been translated from the Hebrew, which is based on what is called the Masoretic Text. The NASB (New American Standard Bible) used the third edition of Rudolf Kittel's Biblia Hebraica, cognate languages, and the Dead Sea Scrolls for it's translation. [14]

However, the Septuagint and the Masoretic Text themselves seem to be based on separate ancient texts, that are no longer available to us, and which did not exactly correspond to each other. In other words, the translators of the Septuagint did not base their translation on the Masoretic text, but another existing at the time. In 1/3 of the cases in which the Samaritan Bible and the Masoretic text differ, the LXX agrees with the Samaritan Scriptures.

    The Samaritans, as you may recall, divided from the Jews before the Babylonian captivity. They have their own Pentateuch or Samaritan Bible and although their oldest manuscript, the Abisha Scroll, which is used in the Samaritan synagogue of Nablus, is thought to date from as late as the twelfth century, its text, however, derives from much earlier manuscripts common to both before their separation from Judaism, probably in the fourth century BC. It is claimed that there are significant differences between the Hebrew and the Samaritan versions in the readings of many sentences but in about two thousand out of the six thousand instances in which the Samaritan and the Masoretic text differ, the LXX agrees with the Samaritan. [15]

Which brings up the question of which of the two can be considered more reliable?

While the human element cannot be ignored, it is sheerly impossible to believe that the text of Scripture is governed solely by scholars who decide what is, and what is not "authentic." Regardless of how many biblical scholars and textual critics endeavor to disregard the Divine side of the matter, surely it can be assumed that God has preserved His Word, and that His providence is alive and well in the matter of both the text, and canon, of the Scriptures. [See The Canon of Scripture and The Apocrypha]

But first a little about the Masoretes and their labours...

The Masoretes were Jewish scholars who between A.D. 500 and 950 gave the Old Testament the form that we use today. Until the Dead Sea Scrolls were found in 1947, the oldest Hebrew text of the Old Testament was the Masoretic Aleppo Codex which dates to A.D. 935. Encyclopædia Britannica Online says

    Masoretic text,  (from Hebrew masoreth, “tradition”), traditional Hebrew text of the Jewish Bible, meticulously assembled and codified, and supplied with diacritical marks to enable correct pronunciation. This monumental work was begun around the 6th century ad and completed in the 10th by scholars at Talmudic academies in Babylonia and Palestine, in an effort to reproduce, as far as possible, the original text of the Hebrew Old Testament. Their intention was not to interpret the meaning of the Scriptures but to transmit to future generations the authentic Word of God. To this end they gathered manuscripts and whatever oral traditions were available to them.

     The Masoretic text that resulted from their work shows that every word and every letter was checked with care. In Hebrew or Aramaic, they called attention to strange spellings and unusual grammar and noted discrepancies in various texts. Since texts traditionally omitted vowels in writing, the Masoretes introduced vowel signs to guarantee correct pronunciation. ... In addition, signs for stress and pause were added to the text to facilitate public reading of the Scriptures in the synagogue.

     When the final codification of each section was complete, the Masoretes not only counted and noted down the total number of verses, words, and letters in the text but further indicated which verse, which word, and which letter marked the centre of the text. In this way any future emendation could be detected. The rigorous care given the Masoretic text in its preparation is credited for the remarkable consistency found in Old Testament Hebrew texts since that time. The Masoretic work enjoyed an absolute monopoly for 600 years, and experts have been astonished at the fidelity of the earliest printed version (late 15th century) to the earliest surviving codices (late 9th century). The Masoretic text is universally accepted as the authentic Hebrew Bible.  [16]


The Masoretic Text and the Dead Sea Scrolls
It has often been claimed that the Masoretes edited the texts to minimize, or even delete the Messianic prophecies or ‘types’ [See Typology] . However, the 1947 discovery of the Dead Sea scrolls in caves in Qumran, gave us manuscripts that predate the Masoretic Text by about one thousand years. After years of study, it was found that the scrolls were almost identical with the Masoretic text, which substantially confirms that our Old Testament has been accurately preserved. In fact, it is a matter of wonder that the text went through so little alteration in over a thousand years. [See The Dead Sea Scrolls]

For example, after examining the Isaiah scrolls found in Cave 1, Gleason Archer, professor of Biblical Languages at Fuller Theological Seminary in Pasadena, California from 1948 to 1965, wrote [Emphasis Added]

    “Even though the two copies of Isaiah discovered in Qumran Cave 1 near the Dead Sea in 1947 were a thousand years earlier than the oldest dated manuscript previously known (A.D. 980), they proved to be word for word identical with our standard Hebrew Bible in more than 95 percent of the text. The five percent of variation consisted chiefly of obvious slips of the pen and variations in spelling.” [17]

Also significant is what Lawrence Schiffman, specialist in the Dead Sea Scrolls, Judaism in Late Antiquity, and Talmudic literature, says about the scrolls as a whole... [Emphasis Added]

    Of the texts available for analysis, some 60 percent are proto-Masoretic, that is, closely related to the Masoretic text; another 20 percent, reflecting the system of writing and grammar prevalent among the Qumran sectarians, were clearly copied by them. Of the remaining texts, only a few may be considered proto-Samaritan or Septuagintal texts. And a few are nonaligned. [18]

In other words, most of the Qumran fragments, which date between 150 BCE and 70 CE are closer to the Masoretic text, than to any other text group that has survived. But then, that is hardly surprising considering that...
 

The Jews Were Entrusted With The Oracles Of God
The Bible says

    What advantage then hath the Jew? or what is the profit of circumcision? Much every way: first of all, that they were intrusted with the oracles of God. [Romans 3:1-2]

Not only did the Jews have the privilege of being the keepers of the sacred books, and had the responsibility to preserve them for posterity, but the Scriptures are very clear.... God Himself trusted them with His Word. The Greek word translated intrusted is pisteuo, which means to have faith in. If God had enough "confidence" in the Jews to appoint them guardians of the Law, The Prophets, and The Writings, who are we to tell the Almighty that His faith was misplaced. 


Evidence of Early Reworking of The "Inspired" Alexandrian Version.

The discovery of a scroll of the twelve minor prophets in Nahal Hever, south of Qumran, shows that its text was based on the Septuagint, but it had undergone an early revision (between 50 B.C. and 50 A.D), toward a closer correspondence with the Hebrew text of the Bible [Reference The Greek Minor Prophets Scroll from Nahal Hever, by Emanuel Tov, Professor, Department of Bible, Hebrew University of Jerusalem].  In their book, Meaning of the Dead Sea Scrolls, authors Peter Flint and James VanderKam say, although some readings are unique ... [Emphasis Added]

    The text of the books in the Minor Prophets scrolls is generally close to the traditional Hebrew one. Even the Greek manuscript from Nahal Hever contains a Septuagint text that has been systematically corrected to correspond more closely to the proto-Masoretic Text (i.e., the ancient form of the medieval Masoretic Text). [19]

In fact, at least one book in the Septuagint was completely rejected by the church...

    The translation of the Book of Daniel was so deficient that it was wholly rejected by the Christian church, and a translation made in the second century A.D. by Theodotion was used from the fourth century onward in its place. [20]


Differences Between The Septuagint & The Hebrew Bible
However, it is not just a question of differences in wording, or strict order of the text. The problem is that the Septuagint differs from the Hebrew Old Testament in some very significant ways.

a) The Order Of The Books Is Different.
The Hebrew Old Testament, which begins with Genesis and ends with 2 Chronicles, is divided into the Law (Torah), the Prophets (Nevi'im), and the Writings (Kethubim). The Septuagint orders the books in the sequence of law, history, wisdom literature, and prophets. (this detail comes into play when faced with the argument that Jesus quoted from the Septuagint. Below).

The Masoretic text of the Hebrew Old Testament contains twenty-four books, the Septuagint contains thirty-nine. This came about because the Septuagint divided the books of Samuel, Kings, Chronicles into two books each. Ezra and Nehemiah, which are one book in the Hebrew Old Testament, were also separated into two books. Additionally the Twelve Minor Prophets, also one book in the Hebrew, were divided into twelve individual books in our Bibles.

Note Luke's references to the book (singular) of the Prophets, which could only be a reference to the Hebrew version

    But God turned, and gave them up to serve the host of heaven; as it is written in the book of the prophets, Did ye offer unto me slain beasts and sacrifices Forty years in the wilderness, O house of Israel? [Acts 7:42]

    Beware therefore, lest that come upon you which is spoken in the prophets: [Acts 13:40]

Although, the English Old Testament was influenced by the LXX, inasmuch as the order and division of the books is concerned, the subject matter is identical with the twenty-four books of the Hebrew Old Testament.


b) The Septuagint Includes the Apocrypha.. Books Not Found In The Hebrew
The word "Apocrypha", which means hidden, refers to several books written in the intertestamental period, between approximately 400 B.C. and the time of Christ, most of which were written in Greek, not Hebrew. These books are... 1 and 2 Esdras, Tobit, Judith, the Wisdom of Solomon, Sirach, (also titled Ecclesiasticus), Baruch, The Letter of Jeremiah, The Prayer of Manasseh, and 1 and 2 Maccabees.

However, it is important to note that we do not have any proof that the Septuagint of the first century included the Apocrypha, simply because no copy of the original translation of the Septuagint exists. Other than 1st and 2nd century BC fragments of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, and the Minor Prophets, the earliest surviving nearly complete manuscripts we have (Codex Sinaiticus and Codex Vaticanus) date back to only about the 4th century A.D.  In fact, Josephus said Ptolemy received only the Torah, or first five books of Moses...

    Accordingly, I thought it became me both to imitate the generosity of our high priest, and to suppose there might even now be many lovers of learning like the king; for he did not obtain all our writings at that time; but those who were sent to Alexandria as interpreters, gave him only the books of the law, (13) while there were a vast number of other matters in our sacred books. [21]

Although they do contain some useful historical information, especially about the time period between Malachi and Matthew, both the Jews, and the Protestant Church, consider the apocrypha non-inspired and do not include these books in the canon of Scripture (The word canon is used to describe those books of the Bible which have been recognized, and officially accepted, as inspired of God, and thus, a legitimate part of Holy Scripture). In fact, three verses in 1 Maccabees make it clear that there hadn't been a prophet in Israel for a while...

    So was there a great affliction in Israel, the like whereof was not since the time that a prophet was not seen among them. [1 Maccabees 9:27]

    And laid up the stones in the mountain of the temple in a convenient place, until there should come a prophet to shew what should be done with them. [1 Maccabees 4:46]

    Also that the Jews and priests were well pleased that Simon should be their governor and high priest for ever, until there should arise a faithful prophet; [1 Maccabees 14:41]

...which is in direct contrast to the Hebrew Old Testament. A search on various phrases in the King James version, shows how many times God Himself was directly speaking to a prophet, who recorded His words.

    "thus saith the Lord" ... 415 results.

    "the LORD said" ... 203 results.

    "the word of the LORD came unto" ... 92 results

However, at the Council of Trent in 1546, the Roman Catholic Church officially declared most of the apocryphal books (with the exception of I & II Esdras and the Prayer of Manassah) as canonical.

    Note: Esdras is the Greco-Latin variation of the name of the scribe Ezra. A total of four books, sometimes referred to as 1, 2, 3, and 4 Esdras, have been associated with Ezra, the first two of which (1 and 2 Esdras) were included in our Bibles as Ezra and Nehemiah. The second two (3 and 4 Esdras) which became known as 1 and 2 Esdras, are not generally recognized as being canonical.

"Sola-Scriptura" or "Scripture alone" was one of the distinctive features of the Protestant Reformation, which simply means that the Scriptures alone are the final source of truth, and all other sources must submit to what the Bible says. One has to wonder whether the Apocryphal books were canonized in order to provide Scriptural "proof" for some un-Scriptural teaching. For example...

    Purgatory - II Maccabees 12:39-45

    Salvation by Almsgiving - Ecclesiasticus 3:30

    Praying for the Dead - 2 Maccabees 12:38-46 (In this passage, Judas Maccabee took up a collection among all his soldiers, amounting to two thousand silver drachmas, which he sent to Jerusalem to provide for an "expiatory sacrifice" for slain Jewish soldiers who had worn pagan amulets)

[See The Canon of Scripture and The Apocrypha] http://www.inplainsite.org/html/apocrypha.html


c) The Septuagint Contains Supplemental Matter In Some Books That Are Common To Both Versions.
For example the Septuagint's version of the book of Daniel contains

    1. The Prayer of Azariah or Song of the Three Holy Children

     2. The stories of Susannah and the Elders

     3. Bel and the Dragon

The Septuagint also added six chapters (107 verses) to the book of Esther.


d) Some Books In The Septuagint Are Shorter Than Their Hebrew Counterparts.
The Septuagint version of the Book of Job is about one-sixth shorter than the Masoretic or Hebrew text, while the Book of Jeremiah lacks about one-eighth of the material. This is hardly surprising since, as previously mentioned, it is believed that the 72 translators were working from a Hebrew text very different from the traditional Masoretic text. As said in the book Septuagint Research: Issues and Challenges in the Study of the Greek Jewish Scriptures

    At least some of the books of the Septuagint are based on a text different from the standard MT. The best known example for this phenomenon is the book of Jeremiah, which in the Septuagint is about one eighth shorter that the MT of this book. Closer comparisons of the two texts show that the Septuagint did not shorten the text as it was translated, but rather, gives a quite exact translation of the Hebrew, although at the same time there are missing words and even sentences. .. Besides Jeremiah there are other books, or parts of books, with different lengths or order of the text, e.g., Joshua, Ezekiel, 1 Samuel 16-18, that give evidence of reworking. [22]

Not only is the Greek book of Jeremiah shorter that the Hebrew one, but the order of the text differs as well which, as Ernst Würthwein says, makes it

    "Evident that the difference is not simply due to the translator, but to his Hebrew exemplar, which must have differed from the Masoretic text we have today. In the texts from Qumran we find not only the longer text represented, but in a fragmentary Hebrew manuscript (4QJerb) we have the shorter text found hitherto only in Greek. [23]


e)
The Psalms are Numbered Differently.
The Hebrew Scriptures, based on the Masoretic text, have 150 psalms, whereas the LXX has 151, which are divided and numbered differently.


Did The New Testament Writers Usually Quote The Septuagint?
But what then are we to make of the oft repeated claim that Jesus and many of the New Testament authors quoted from the Septuagint. Note this statement on the OrthodoxWiki web site.

    By the time of our Lord, the Septuagint was the Bible in use by most Hellenistic Jews. Thus, when the Apostles quote the Jewish Scripture in their own writings, the overwhelmingly dominant source for their wording comes directly from the Septuagint (LXX). [24]

Even Bruce Metzger said "the New Testament writers usually quoted the Septuagint".

But is this true?
 

The Law and The Prophets
On several occasions Jesus, Luke, and Paul, referred to 'The Law and the Prophets' which, along with The Writings, was the Hebrew division of the Old Testament. The Law (Torah) - Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. The Prophets (Nevi'im) - Joshua, Judges, 1 & 2 Samuel (one book), 1 & 2 Kings (one volume), Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, the 12 Minor Prophets (one book). The Writings (Kethubim) - Psalms, Proverbs, Job, Ruth, Song of Solomon, Ecclesiastes, Lamentations, Esther, Daniel, Ezra and Nehemiah (one book), 1 & 2 Chronicles (one book)

    Think not that I came to destroy the law or the prophets: I came not to destroy, but to fulfil. [Matthew 5:17]

    All things therefore whatsoever ye would that men should do unto you, even so do ye also unto them: for this is the law and the prophets. [Matthew 7:12]

    And a second like unto it is this, Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself. On these two commandments the whole law hangeth, and the prophets. [Matthew 22:39-40]

    And he said unto them, These are my words which I spake unto you, while I was yet with you, that all things must needs be fulfilled, which are written in the law of Moses, and the prophets, and the psalms, concerning me. [Luke 24:44]

    And after the reading of the law and the prophets the rulers of the synagogue sent unto them, saying, Brethren, if ye have any word of exhortation for the people, say on. [Acts 13:15]

    But this I confess unto thee, that after the Way which they call a sect, so serve I the God of our fathers, believing all things which are according to the law, and which are written in the prophets; [Acts 24:14]

    And when they had appointed him a day, they came to him into his lodging in great number; to whom he expounded the matter, testifying the kingdom of God, and persuading them concerning Jesus, both from the law of Moses and from the prophets, from morning till evening. [Acts 28:23]

It is an inescapable fact that Christ was addressing people who used, and were familiar with, the 3-fold division found in the Hebrew Old Testament, since no known version of the Septuagint has any such division. On the contrary, the translators of the Septuagint not only gave the books of the Bible Greek names but, as said before, they categorized them differently... Law, history, writings, and prophecy.


From Abel to Zachariah

Additionally when Jesus said...

    that upon you may come all the righteous blood shed on the earth, from the blood of Abel the righteous unto the blood of Zachariah son of Barachiah, whom ye slew between the sanctuary and the altar. [Matthew 23:35]

...He was referring to Abel's murder at the hands of his brother recorded in Genesis, the first book of the Bible, and Zachariah's murder which happened at the command of king Joash, and is recorded in 2 Chronicles 24:20-22.

Since 2 Chronicles was the last book of the Hebrew Old Testament, Jesus was, in essence, saying, 'from the first murder to the last murder in the Bible'. His statement was equivalent to someone today saying 'from Genesis to Malachi', and clearly showed He considered the Hebrew Old Testament to be the legitimate canon.


The Jots And The Tittles
In Matthew 5:18, Jesus made the statement...

     "For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled." (Matthew 5:18)

The jot is a Hebrew letter, while the tittle is a small horn-like mark, which distinguishes between Hebrew letters.

    The word translated "jot" (iota in the Greek New Testament) refers to the smallest Hebrew letter "Yod"), and the word translated "tittle" (keria in Greek) refers to the "horn", or smallest stroke of a Hebrew letter, probably something like a "serif" in our modern English translation. [25]

Again, it is clear that if the Greek Septuagint was in common use, Jesus would not have referred to the Hebrew alphabet. (On the other hand, 2nd and 3rd century Christians must have almost exclusively used the Septuagint, simply because they were more fluent in Greek than Hebrew. And the LXX was the only available Greek text for a long time.)

It does not make ANY sense to believe that Jesus, more than once clearly referred to the Hebrew Bible, but then quoted from the Septuagint


Jesus and Luke 4:16-19
I have also read that when Jesus read Isaiah (61:1-2) in the synagogue at Nazareth (Luke 4:16-19), he followed the language of the Greek Septuagint.  However, I find this hard to believe. Hebrew, considered sacred, was the language of the Synagogue and, as far as I know, no Greek Old Testament has ever been found in a Jewish Synagogue. Consider the following from a Jewish site...

    Because it is the language of sacred texts, Hebrew itself was often considered sacred. In post-biblical times, it was referred to as lashon ha-kodesh, the holy language. Hebrew was often thought to be the language of the angels, and indeed, of God. According to rabbinic tradition, Hebrew was the original language of humanity. It was spoken by all of humankind prior to the dispersion described in the Tower of Babel story in Genesis. In addition, the Hebrew language was thought of as the tool that God used to create the world. A midrash states that, “Just as the Torah was given in lashon ha-kodesh, so the world was created with lashon ha-kodesh.” [26]

Which makes it extremely doubtful that a Greek Old Testament could ever have gained widespread acceptance among the Jews of Palestine, much less be used in the synagogues. Besides which, it is simply not true that Luke 4:18 agrees more with the LXX than the Masoretic text.

The account in Luke 4, has Jesus apparently quoting Isaiah 61:1-3

    The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, Because he anointed me to preach good tidings to the poor: He hath sent me to proclaim release to the captives, And recovering of sight to the blind, To set at liberty them that are bruised, To proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord. [Luke 4:18-19]

And here are the King James, NASB and Septuagint versions of Isaiah 61:1-3.

    The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he has anointed me; he has sent me to preach glad tidings to the poor, to heal the broken in heart, to proclaim liberty to the captives, and recovery of sight to the blind; to declare the acceptable year of the Lord, and the day of recompence; to comfort all that mourn; that there should be given to them that mourn in Sion glory instead of ashes, the oil of joy to the mourners, the garment of glory for the spirit of heaviness: and they shall be called generations of righteousness, the planting of the Lord for glory. [Isaiah 61:1-3 Septuagint]

    The Spirit of the Lord GOD is upon me; because the LORD hath anointed me to preach good tidings unto the meek; he hath sent me to bind up the brokenhearted, to proclaim liberty to the captives, and the opening of the prison to them that are bound; To proclaim the acceptable year of the LORD, and the day of vengeance of our God; to comfort all that mourn; To appoint unto them that mourn in Zion, to give unto them beauty for ashes, the oil of joy for mourning, the garment of praise for the spirit of heaviness; that they might be called trees of righteousness, the planting of the LORD, that he might be glorified. [Isaiah 61:1-3 KJV]

    The Spirit of the Sovereign LORD is upon me, for the LORD has anointed me to bring good news to the poor. He has sent me to comfort the brokenhearted and to proclaim that captives will be released and prisoners will be freed. To proclaim the favorable year of the LORD And the day of vengeance of our God; To comfort all who mourn, To grant those who mourn in Zion, Giving them a garland instead of ashes, The oil of gladness instead of mourning, The mantle of praise instead of a spirit of fainting. So they will be called oaks of righteousness, The planting of the LORD, that He may be glorified [Isaiah 61:1-3 NASB]

The clause, "recovering of sight to the blind" in Luke 4:18, matches the clause, "recovery of sight to the blind" in Isaiah 61:1 in the LXX. The Masoretic text does not explicitly mention the "blind."

If Jesus quoted from the Septuagint, then one has to wonder where He got the extra words "To set at liberty them that are bruised" which are not found in the LXX, but bear some resemblance to the clause "the opening of the prison to them that are bound" found in the Hebrew (Masoretic text).

There are several possible reasons as to why Jesus' words do not exactly matches the Septuagint, nor the Masoretic text.


1) Jesus Cross Referenced Isaiah 61
Some believe that Jesus cited, not only the passage from Isaiah 61 but, since both verses refer to people coming out of spiritual darkness, He also referred to Isaiah 42:6-7, which actually adds more detail to the whole concept of freeing prisoners in bondage. In other words Jesus was expounding on Isaiah 61:1...

    I, the Lord, have called thee in righteousness, and will hold thy hand, and will keep thee, and give thee for a covenant of the people, for a light of the Gentiles; to open the blind eyes, to bring out the prisoners from the dungeon, and them that sit in darkness out of the prison-house.

Some believe that this is not possible, since Jesus was reading from Isaiah 61. However, the previous verse in Luke simply says that Jesus "opened the book, and found the place where it was written" [Luke 4:17]

2) The Hebrew manuscript Jesus read in the synagogue that day differed slightly from both the proto-Masoretic Text, and the proto-Septuagint text.

3) Luke Did not Quote Jesus' Exact Words
a) It is entirely possible that, in his account, Luke suggests that Jesus read from Isaiah, but did not translate Jesus' exact words from Hebrew into Greek, but partially used an existing translation.. the LXX. In other words, Jesus read the Hebrew, but the New Testament authors later used the Greek translation to record what He said.

b) In a day and age in which it is possible for us to leaf through our Bibles and find exactly the chapter and verse we are looking for, or 'cut and paste' any verse we want from a Bible software program or an online Bible, we need to be reminded of how different it was in the first century. It must have been a considerable task for early Christians to look through scrolls to find a particular verse they were looking for, if they even had ready access to them. Therefore, many New Testament citations of the Old Testament are, more likely than not, to have been quoted from memory.

For example, Paul, who would have probably been familiar with both the Hebrew and Greek versions of the Old Testament, would, in all likelihood, not have been consistent in quoting from the same version every time and, in all probability, would not have used exactly the same words as the version he was citing.


Finally

There is little question that the Septuagint has had a great deal of influence. Not only did it make it possible for the Jews living in the Greek diaspora to read the Scriptures in their own language, but it also made it possible for non-Jews to study the Old Testament, which obviously was a major factor in the spread of the early church.

Over the centuries, the Septuagint was often the principal source text for translations into other languages, including Old Latin, Coptic, Gothic, Armenian, Georgian, Ethiopic etc., and has, to this day, remained the official Old Testament of the Greek/Eastern Orthodox Church.

It is easy to see why the church of Rome is devoted to the idea that Christ and the apostles frequently cited the Septuagint. But why evangelicals insist on the same hypothesis is beyond understanding, especially when the evidence is paltry at best. That the Septuagint was the Bible of the early church, doesn't really prove anything one way, or the other. It happened to be the only Greek version of the Hebrew Scriptures for a long time.

Therefore, while the Septuagint is often very useful in helping us understand certain verses, let us not try and prove points of doctrine from it. And as far as is possible, let us use the Hebrew version of the Old Testament, which has remained virtually unchanged for at least a thousand years.
 

Bible1-Bar


It Is Written
The Greek phrase "it is written", although a common one in ancient Greek writings, is not an indication of an exact quote. I did a search on the exact phrase "it is written" in the New Testament, and came up with 60 plus matches. We do not know if these quotations match any ancient document word for word, but it is evident that few of these New Testament sayings match the exact wording of the Hebrew Old Testament, or the Septuagint, passages they refer to.

In other words, when Jesus and the New Testament authors cited the Old Testament with the introductory clause "it is written", they almost always gave the gist, or the sense of the passage they were referring to, rather than an exact, word for word, quote.

Perhaps Jesus' quotation of Isaiah 29:13, is one that leans most towards the Septuagint, but again, does not exactly match it. He said

    And he said unto them, Well did Isaiah prophesy of you hypocrites, as it is written, This people honoreth me with their lips, But their heart is far from me. But in vain do they worship me, Teaching as their doctrines the precepts of men. [Mark 7:6-7]

Isaiah 29:13 in three different versions...

    And the Lord has said, This people draw nigh to me with their mouth, and they honour me with their lips, but their heart is far from me: but in vain do they worship me, teaching the commandments and doctrines of men. [Isaiah 29:13. Septuagint]

    And the Lord said, Forasmuch as this people draw nigh unto me, and with their mouth and with their lips to honor me, but have removed their heart far from me, and their fear of me is a commandment of men which hath been taught them; [Isaiah 29:13. ASV]

    Wherefore the Lord said, Forasmuch as this people draw near me with their mouth, and with their lips do honour me, but have removed their heart far from me, and their fear toward me is taught by the precept of men: [Isaiah 29:13. KJV]

And, on the other hand Matthew 8:17, a citation of Isaiah 53:3-4 is almost word for word from the Hebrew

    that it might be fulfilled which was spoken through Isaiah the prophet, saying: Himself took our infirmities, and bare our diseases.Matthew 8:17]

    He was despised, and rejected of men; a man of sorrows, and acquainted with grief: and as one from whom men hide their face he was despised; and we esteemed him not. Surely he hath borne our griefs, and carried our sorrows; yet we did esteem him stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted. [Isaiah 53:3-4]

    He bears our sins, and is pained for us: yet we accounted him to be in trouble, and in suffering, and in affliction. [Isaiah 53:4. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]


It Is Written
The list below contains many, if not most, of the "it is written" citations of the Old Testament, and the "that it might be fulfilled" New Testament verses where the Old Testament has been quoted. When Jesus' words are repeated in more than one of the Gospels, only one instance, usually from Matthew as the first book of the New Testament, is mentioned. The first Old Testament verse cited is, for no particular reason, the ASV version. However I have changed all instances of "Jehovah" to "The Lord". [More About The Name Jehovah]

1) Now all this is come to pass, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the Lord through the prophet, saying, Behold, the virgin shall be with child, and shall bring forth a son, And they shall call his name Immanuel; which is, being interpreted, God with us. [Matthew 1:22-23]

    Therefore the Lord himself will give you a sign: behold, a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel. [Isaiah 7:14]

    Therefore the Lord himself shall give you a sign; behold, a virgin shall conceive in the womb, and shall bring forth a son, and thou shalt call his name Emmanuel. [Isaiah 7:14. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]


2) Then was fulfilled that which was spoken through Jeremiah the prophet, saying, A voice was heard in Ramah, Weeping and great mourning, Rachel weeping for her children; And she would not be comforted, because they are not. [Matthew 2:17-18]

    Thus saith Jehovah: A voice is heard in Ramah, lamentation, and bitter weeping, Rachel weeping for her children; she refuseth to be comforted for her children, because they are not. [Jeremiah 31:15]

    A voice was heard in Rama, of lamentation, and of weeping, and wailing; Rachel would not cease weeping for her children, because they are not. [Jeremiah 38:15. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]


3) But he answered and said, It is written, Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God. [Matthew 4:4]

    And he humbled thee, and suffered thee to hunger, and fed thee with manna, which thou knewest not, neither did thy fathers know; that he might make thee know that man doth not live by bread only, but by everything that proceedeth out of the mouth of the Lord doth man live. [Deuteronomy 8:3 ASV]

    And he afflicted thee and straitened thee with hunger, and fed thee with manna, which thy fathers knew not; that he might teach thee that man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceeds out of the mouth of God shall man live. [Deuteronomy 8:3. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]


4) and saith unto him, If thou art the Son of God, cast thyself down: for it is written, He shall give his angels charge concerning thee: and, On their hands they shall bear thee up, Lest haply thou dash thy foot against a stone. [Matthew 4:6]

    For he will give his angels charge over thee, To keep thee in all thy ways. They shall bear thee up in their hands, Lest thou dash thy foot against a stone. [Psalms 91:11-12]

    For he shall give his angels charge concerning thee, to keep thee in all thy ways. They shall bear thee up on their hands, lest at any time thou dash thy foot against a stone. [Psalms 91:11-12. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]


5) Jesus said unto him, Again it is written, Thou shalt not make trial of the Lord thy God. [Matthew 4:7]

    Ye shall not tempt the Lord your God, as ye tempted him in Massah. [Deuteronomy 6:16]

    Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God, as ye tempted him in the temptation. [Deuteronomy 6:16. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]


6) Then saith Jesus unto him, Get thee hence, Satan: for it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve. [Matthew 4:10]

    Thou shalt fear the Lord thy God; and him shalt thou serve, and shalt swear by his name. [Deuteronomy 6:13]

    Thou shalt fear the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve; and thou shalt cleave to him, and by his name thou shalt swear. [Deuteronomy 6:13. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]


7) that it might be fulfilled which was spoken through Isaiah the prophet, saying, The land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali, Toward the sea, beyond the Jordan, Galilee of the Gentiles, The people that sat in darkness Saw a great light, And to them that sat in the region and shadow of death, To them did light spring up. [Matthew 4:14-16]

    But there shall be no gloom to her that was in anguish. In the former time he brought into contempt the land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali; but in the latter time hath he made it glorious, by the way of the sea, beyond the Jordan, Galilee of the nations. The people that walked in darkness have seen a great light: they that dwelt in the land of the shadow of death, upon them hath the light shined. [Isaiah 9:1-2]

    Drink this first. Act quickly, O land of Zabulon, land of Nephthalim, and the rest inhabiting the sea-coast, and the land beyond Jordan, Galilee of the Gentiles. O people walking in darkness, behold a great light: ye that dwell in the region and shadow of death, a light shall shine upon you. [Isaiah 9:1-2. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]


8) that it might be fulfilled which was spoken through Isaiah the prophet, saying: Himself took our infirmities, and bare our diseases. [Matthew 8:17]

    He was despised, and rejected of men; a man of sorrows, and acquainted with grief: and as one from whom men hide their face he was despised; and we esteemed him not. Surely he hath borne our griefs, and carried our sorrows; yet we did esteem him stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted. [Isaiah 53:3-4]

    He bears our sins, and is pained for us: yet we accounted him to be in trouble, and in suffering, and in affliction. [Isaiah 53:4. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]


9) This is he, of whom it is written, Behold, I send my messenger before thy face, Who shall prepare thy way before thee. [Matthew 11:10]

    The voice of one that crieth, Prepare ye in the wilderness the way of the Lord; make level in the desert a highway for our God.  [Isaiah 40:3]

    The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make straight the paths of our God. [Isaiah 40:3. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]


10) that it might be fulfilled which was spoken through Isaiah the prophet, saying, Behold, my servant whom I have chosen; My beloved in whom my soul is well pleased: I will put my Spirit upon him, And he shall declare judgment to the Gentiles. He shall not strive, nor cry aloud; Neither shall any one hear his voice in the streets. A bruised reed shall he not break, And smoking flax shall he not quench, Till he send forth judgment unto victory. And in his name shall the Gentiles hope. [Matthew 12:17-21]

    Behold, my servant, whom I uphold; my chosen, in whom my soul delighteth: I have put my Spirit upon him; he will bring forth justice to the Gentiles. He will not cry, nor lift up his voice, nor cause it to be heard in the street. A bruised reed will he not break, and a dimly burning wick will he not quench: he will bring forth justice in truth. He will not fail nor be discouraged, till he have set justice in the earth; and the isles shall wait for his law. [Isaiah 42:1-4]

    Jacob is my servant, I will help him: Israel is my chosen, my soul has accepted him; I have put my Spirit upon him; he shall bring forth judgment to the Gentiles. He shall not cry, nor lift up his voice, nor shall his voice be heard without. A bruised reed shall he not break, and smoking flax shall he not quench; but he shall bring forth judgment to truth. He shall shine out, and shall not be discouraged, until he have set judgment on the earth: and in his name shall the Gentiles trust. [Isaiah 42:1-4. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]


11) And unto them is fulfilled the prophecy of Isaiah, which saith, By hearing ye shall hear, and shall in no wise understand; And seeing ye shall see, and shall in no wise perceive: For this people's heart is waxed gross, And their ears are dull of hearing, And their eyes they have closed; Lest haply they should perceive with their eyes, And hear with their ears, And understand with their heart, And should turn again, And I should heal them.  [Matthew 13:14-15]

    And he said, Go, and tell this people, Hear ye indeed, but understand not; and see ye indeed, but perceive not. Make the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and shut their eyes; lest they sea with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understand with their heart, and turn again, and be healed. [Isaiah 6:9-10]

    Ye shall hear indeed, but ye shall not understand; and ye shall see indeed, but ye shall not perceive. For the heart of this people has become gross, and their ears are dull of hearing, and their eyes have they closed; lest they should see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understand with their heart, and be converted, and I should heal them. [Isaiah 6:9-10. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]


12) that it might be fulfilled which was spoken through the prophet, saying, I will open my mouth in parables; I will utter things hidden from the foundation of the world. [Matthew 13:35]

    I will open my mouth in a parable; I will utter dark sayings of old, Which we have heard and known, And our fathers have told us. [Psalms 78:2-3]

    I will open my mouth in parables: I will utter dark sayings which have been from the beginning. All which we have heard and known, and our fathers have declared to us. [Psalms 78:2-3. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]


13) Now this is come to pass, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken through the prophet, saying, Tell ye the daughter of Zion, Behold, thy King cometh unto thee, Meek, and riding upon an ass, And upon a colt the foal of an ass. [Matthew 21:4-5]

    Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion; shout, O daughter of Jerusalem: behold, thy king cometh unto thee; he is just, and having salvation; lowly, and riding upon an ass, even upon a colt the foal of an ass. [Zechariah 9:9]

    Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Sion; proclaim it aloud, O daughter of Jerusalem; behold, the King is coming to thee, just, and a Saviour; he is meek and riding on an ass, and a young foal. [Zechariah 9:9. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]


14) and he saith unto them, It is written, My house shall be called a house of prayer: but ye make it a den of robbers.  [Matthew 21:13]

    even them will I bring to my holy mountain, and make them joyful in my house of prayer: their burnt-offerings and their sacrifices shall be accepted upon mine altar; for my house shall be called a house of prayer for all peoples. [Isaiah 56:7]

    I will bring them to my holy mountain, and gladden them in my house of prayer: their whole-burnt-offerings and their sacrifices shall be acceptable upon mine altar; for my house shall be called a house of prayer for all nations, [Isaiah 56:7. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]


15) Then saith Jesus unto them, All ye shall be offended in me this night: for it is written, I will smite the shepherd, and the sheep of the flock shall be scattered abroad. [Matthew 26:31]

    Awake, O sword, against my shepherd, and against the man that is my fellow, saith the Lord of hosts: smite the shepherd, and the sheep shall be scattered; and I will turn my hand upon the little ones.  [Zechariah 13:7]

    Awake, O sword, against my shepherds, and against the man who is my citizen, saith the Lord Almighty: smite the shepherds, and draw out the sheep: and I will bring mine hand upon the little ones. [Zechariah 13:7. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]


16) Then was fulfilled that which was spoken through Jeremiah the prophet, saying, And they took the thirty pieces of silver, the price of him that was priced, whom certain of the children of Israel did price; [Matthew 27:9]

    And I said unto them, If ye think good, give me my hire; and if not, forbear. So they weighed for my hire thirty pieces of silver. And Jehovah said unto me, Cast it unto the potter, the goodly price that I was prized at by them. And I took the thirty pieces of silver, and cast them unto the potter, in the house of Jehovah. [Zechariah 11:12-13]

    And I will say to them, If it be good in your eyes, give me my price, or refuse it. And they weighed for my price thirty pieces of silver. And the Lord said to me, Drop them into the furnace, and I will see if it is good metal, as I was proved for their sakes. And I took the thirty pieces of silver, and cast them into the furnace in the house of the Lord. [Zechariah 11:12-13. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]


17) Even as it is written in Isaiah the prophet, Behold, I send my messenger before thy face, Who shall prepare thy way. [Mark 1:2]

    Behold, I send my messenger, and he shall prepare the way before me: and the Lord, whom ye seek, will suddenly come to his temple; and the messenger of the covenant, whom ye desire, behold, he cometh, saith the Lord of hosts. [Malachi 3:1]

    Behold, I send forth my messenger, and he shall survey the way before me: and the Lord, whom ye seek, shall suddenly come into his temple, even the angel of the covenant, whom ye take pleasure in: behold, he is coming, saith the Lord Almighty. [Malachi 3:1. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]

    The voice of one that crieth, Prepare ye in the wilderness the way of the Lord; make level in the desert a highway for our God.  [Isaiah 40:3]

    The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make straight the paths of our God. [Isaiah 40:3. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]


18) And he said unto them, Well did Isaiah prophesy of you hypocrites, as it is written, This people honoreth me with their lips, But their heart is far from me.  [Mark 7:6]

    And the Lord said, Forasmuch as this people draw nigh unto me, and with their mouth and with their lips to honor me, but have removed their heart far from me, and their fear of me is a commandment of men which hath been taught them; [Isaiah 29:13].

    And the Lord has said, This people draw nigh to me with their mouth, and they honour me with their lips, but their heart is far from me: but in vain do they worship me, teaching the commandments and doctrines of men. [Isaiah 29:13. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]


19) And the scripture was fulfilled, which saith, And he was reckoned with transgressors.  [Mark 15:28. Also See Luke 22:37]

    Therefore will I divide him a portion with the great, and he shall divide the spoil with the strong; because he poured out his soul unto death, and was numbered with the transgressors: yet he bare the sin of many, and made intercession for the transgressors. [Isaiah 53:12]

    Therefore he shall inherit many, and he shall divide the spoils of the mighty; because his soul was delivered to death: and he was numbered among the transgressors; and he bore the sins of many, and was delivered because of their iniquities. [Isaiah 53:12. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]


20) as it is written in the law of the Lord, Every male that openeth the womb shall be called holy to the Lord), [Luke 2:23]

    Sanctify unto me all the first-born, whatsoever openeth the womb among the children of Israel, both of man and of beast: it is mine. [Exodus 13:2]

    that thou shalt set apart every offspring opening the womb, the males to the Lord, every one that opens the womb out of the herds or among thy cattle, as many as thou shalt have: thou shalt sanctify the males to the Lord. [Exodus 13:12. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]


21) Our fathers ate the manna in the wilderness; as it is written, He gave them bread out of heaven to eat.  [John 6:31]

    Yet he commanded the skies above, And opened the doors of heaven; And he rained down manna upon them to eat, And gave them food from heaven. [Psalms 78:23-24]

    Yet he commanded the clouds from above, and opened the doors of heaven, and rained upon them manna to eat, and gave them the bread of heaven. [Psalms 78:23-24. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]


22) It is written in the prophets, And they shall all be taught of God. Every one that hath heard from the Father, and hath learned, cometh unto me. [John 6:45]

    And all thy children shall be taught of the Lord; and great shall be the peace of thy children.  [Isaiah 54:13]

    And I will cause all thy sons to be taught of God, and thy children to be in great peace. [Isaiah 54:13. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]

    and they shall teach no more every man his neighbor, and every man his brother, saying, Know the Lord; for they shall all know me, from the least of them unto the greatest of them, saith the Lord: for I will forgive their iniquity, and their sin will I remember no more.  [Jeremiah 31:34]

    From the cry of Esebon even to Ætam their cities uttered their voice, from Zogor to Oronaim, and their tidings as a heifer of three years old, for the water also of Nebrin shall be dried up. [Jeremiah 31:34. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]


23) And Jesus, having found a young ass, sat thereon; as it is written, Fear not, daughter of Zion: behold, thy King cometh, sitting on an ass's colt.  [John 12:14-15]

    Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion; shout, O daughter of Jerusalem: behold, thy king cometh unto thee; he is just, and having salvation; lowly, and riding upon an ass, even upon a colt the foal of an ass. [Zechariah 9:9]

    Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Sion; proclaim it aloud, O daughter of Jerusalem; behold, the King is coming to thee, just, and a Saviour; he is meek and riding on an ass, and a young foal. [Zechariah 9:9. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]


24) that the word of Isaiah the prophet might be fulfilled, which he spake, Lord, who hath believed our report? And to whom hath the arm of the Lord been revealed?  [John 12:38]

    Who hath believed our message? and to whom hath the arm of Jehovah been revealed? [Isaiah 53:1]

    O Lord, who has believed our report? and to whom has the arm of the Lord been revealed? [Isaiah 53:1. Septuagint... Brenton's edition
    ]

25) I speak not of you all: I know whom I have chosen: but that the scripture may be fulfilled: He that eateth my bread lifted up his heel against me. [John 13:18]

    Yea, mine own familiar friend, in whom I trusted, Who did eat of my bread, Hath lifted up his heel against me. [Psalms 41:9 ASV]

    For even the man of my peace, in whom I trusted, who ate my bread, lifted up his heel against me. [Psalms 41:9. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]


26) But this cometh to pass, that the word may be fulfilled that is written in their law, They hated me without a cause. [John 15:25]

    They that hate me without a cause are more than the hairs of my head: They that would cut me off, being mine enemies wrongfully, are mighty: That which I took not away I have to restore. [Psalms 69:4]

    They that hate me without a cause are more than the hairs of my head: my enemies that persecute me unrighteously are strengthened: then I restored that which I took not away. [Psalms 69:4. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]


27) For it is written in the book of Psalms, Let his habitation be made desolate, And let no man dwell therein: and, His office let another take.  [Acts 1:20]

    Let their habitation be desolate; Let none dwell in their tents. [Psalms 69:25]

    Let their habitation be made desolate; and let there be no inhabitant in their tents: [Psalms 69:25. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]


28) But God turned, and gave them up to serve the host of heaven; as it is written in the book of the prophets, Did ye offer unto me slain beasts and sacrifices Forty years in the wilderness, O house of Israel?  [Acts 7:42]

    Did ye bring unto me sacrifices and offerings in the wilderness forty years, O house of Israel? Yea, ye have borne the tabernacle of your king and the shrine of your images, the star of your god, which ye made to yourselves. [Amos 5:25-26]

    Have ye offered to me victims and sacrifices, O house of Israel, forty years in the wilderness? Yea, ye took up the tabernacle of Moloch, and the star of your god Raephan, the images of them which ye made for yourselves. [Amos 5:25-26. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]


29) And to this agree the words of the prophets; as it is written, After these things I will return, And I will build again the tabernacle of David, which is fallen; And I will build again the ruins thereof, And I will set it up: [Acts 15:15-16]

    In that day will I raise up the tabernacle of David that is fallen, and close up the breaches thereof; and I will raise up its ruins, and I will build it as in the days of old; that they may possess the remnant of Edom, and all the nations that are called by my name, saith the Lord that doeth this. [Amos 9:11-12]

    11 In that day I will raise up the tabernacle of David that is fallen, and will rebuild the ruins of it, and will set up the parts thereof that have been broken down, and will build it up as in the ancient days: 12 that the remnant of men, and all the Gentiles upon whom my name is called, may earnestly seek me, saith the Lord who does all these things. [Amos 9:11-12. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]


30) And Paul said, I knew not, brethren, that he was high priest: for it is written, Thou shalt not speak evil of a ruler of thy people. [Acts 23:5]

    Thou shalt not revile God, nor curse a ruler of thy people. [Exodus 22:28]

    Thou shalt not revile the gods, nor speak ill of the ruler of thy people. [Exodus 22:28. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]


31) For therein is revealed a righteousness of God from faith unto faith: as it is written, But the righteous shall live by faith. [Romans 1:17]

    Behold, his soul is puffed up, it is not upright in him; but the righteous shall live by his faith. [Habakkuk 2:4]

    If he should draw back, my soul has no pleasure in him: but the just shall live by my faith. [Habakkuk 2:4. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]


32) For the name of God is blasphemed among the Gentiles because of you, even as it is written.  [Romans 2:24]

    Now therefore, what do I here, saith the Lord, seeing that my people is taken away for nought? they that rule over them do howl, saith the Lord, and my name continually all the day is blasphemed. [Isaiah 52:5]

    5 And now why are ye here? Thus saith the Lord, Because my people was taken for nothing, wonder ye and howl. Thus saith the Lord, On account of you my name is continually blasphemed among the Gentiles. [Isaiah 52:5. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]


33) God forbid: yea, let God be found true, but every man a liar; as it is written, That thou mightest be justified in thy words, And mightest prevail when thou comest into judgment.  [Romans 3:4]

    I said in my haste, All men are liars. What shall I render unto the Lord For all his benefits toward me? [Psalms 116:11-12]

    And I said in mine amazement, Every man is a liar. What shall I render to the Lord for all the things wherein he has rewarded me? [Psalms 116:11-12. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]

    Against thee, thee only, have I sinned, And done that which is evil in thy sight; That thou mayest be justified when thou speakest, And be clear when thou judgest. [Psalms 51:4]

    Against thee only have I sinned, and done evil before thee: that thou mightest be justified in thy sayings, and mightest overcome when thou art judged. [Psalms 51:4. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]


34) as it is written, There is none righteous, no, not one;  [Romans 3:10]

    The fool hath said in his heart, There is no God. They are corrupt, they have done abominable works; There is none that doeth good. [Psalms 14:1]

    For the end, Psalm of David. The fool has said in his heart, There is no God. They have corrupted themselves, and become abominable in their devices; there is none that does goodness, there is not even so much as one. [Psalms 14:1. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]


35) (as it is written, A father of many nations have I made thee) before him whom he believed, even God, who giveth life to the dead, and calleth the things that are not, as though they were. [Romans 4:17]

    As for me, behold, my covenant is with thee, and thou shalt be the father of a multitude of nations. Neither shall thy name any more be called Abram, but thy name shall be Abraham; for the father of a multitude of nations have I made thee. [Genesis 17:4-5. ASV]

    And I, behold! my covenant is with thee, and thou shalt be a father of a multitude of nations. And thy name shall no more be called Abram, but thy name shall be Abraam, for I have made thee a father of many nations. [Genesis 17:4-5. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]


36) Even as it is written, For thy sake we are killed all the day long; We were accounted as sheep for the slaughter.  [Romans 8:36]

    Yea, for thy sake are we killed all the day long; We are accounted as sheep for the slaughter. [Psalms 44:22]

    For, for thy sake we are killed all the day long; we are counted as sheep for slaughter. [Psalms 44:22. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]


37) Even as it is written, Jacob I loved, but Esau I hated.  [Romans 9:13]

    I have loved you, saith the Lord. Yet ye say, Wherein hast thou loved us? Was not Esau Jacob's brother, saith the Lord: yet I loved Jacob; but Esau I hated, and made his mountains a desolation, and gave his heritage to the jackals of the wilderness. [Malachi 1:2-3]

    I have loved you, saith the Lord. And ye said, Wherein hast thou loved us? Was not Esau Jacob's brother? saith the Lord: yet I loved Jacob, and hated Esau and laid waste his borders, and made his heritage as dwellings of the wilderness? [Malachi 1:2-3. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]


38) even as it is written, Behold, I lay in Zion a stone of stumbling and a rock of offence: And he that believeth on him shall not be put to shame. [Romans 9:33]

    And he shall be for a sanctuary; but for a stone of stumbling and for a rock of offence to both the houses of Israel, for a gin and for a snare to the inhabitants of Jerusalem. [Isaiah 8:14]

    And if thou shalt trust in him, he shall be to thee for a sanctuary; and ye shall not come against him as against a stumbling-stone, neither as against the falling of a rock: but the houses of Jacob are in a snare, and the dwellers in Jerusalem in a pit. [Isaiah 8:14. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]

    therefore thus saith the Lord the Lord, Behold, I lay in Zion for a foundation a stone, a tried stone, a precious corner-stone of sure foundation: he that believeth shall not be in haste. [Isaiah 28:16]

    Therefore thus saith the Lord, even the Lord, Behold, I lay for the foundations of Sion a costly stone, a choice, a corner-stone, a precious stone, for its foundations; and he that believes on him shall by no means be ashamed. [Isaiah 28:16. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]
     

39) and how shall they preach, except they be sent? even as it is written, How beautiful are the feet of them that bring glad tidings of good things!  [Romans 10:15]

    How beautiful upon the mountains are the feet of him that bringeth good tidings, that publisheth peace, that bringeth good tidings of good, that publisheth salvation, that saith unto Zion, Thy God reigneth! [Isaiah 52:7]

    as a season of beauty upon the mountains, as the feet of one preaching glad tidings of peace, as one preaching good news: for I will publish thy salvation, saying, O Sion, thy God shall reign. [Isaiah 52:7. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]
     

40) according as it is written, God gave them a spirit of stupor, eyes that they should not see, and ears that they should not hear, unto this very day.  [Romans 11:8]

    For the Lord hath poured out upon you the spirit of deep sleep, and hath closed your eyes, the prophets; and your heads, the seers, hath he covered. [Isaiah 29:10]

    For the Lord has made you to drink a spirit of deep sleep; and he shall close their eyes, and the eyes of their prophets and of their rulers, who see secret things. [Isaiah 29:10. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]
     

41) and so all Israel shall be saved: even as it is written, There shall come out of Zion the Deliverer; He shall turn away ungodliness from Jacob: [Romans 11:26]

    And a Redeemer will come to Zion, and unto them that turn from transgression in Jacob, saith the Lord. [Isaiah 59:20]

    And the deliverer shall come for Sion's sake, and shall turn away ungodliness from Jacob. [Isaiah 59:20. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]


42) Avenge not yourselves, beloved, but give place unto the wrath of God: for it is written, Vengeance belongeth unto me; I will recompense, saith the Lord.  [Romans 12:19]

    Vengeance is mine, and recompense, At the time when their foot shall slide: For the day of their calamity is at hand, And the things that are to come upon them shall make haste. [Deuteronomy 32:35]

    In the day of vengeance I will recompense, whensoever their foot shall be tripped up; for the day of their destruction is near to them, and the judgments at hand are close upon you. [Deuteronomy 32:35. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]
     

43) For it is written, As I live, saith the Lord, to me every knee shall bow, And every tongue shall confess to God. [Romans 14:11]

    By myself have I sworn, the word is gone forth from my mouth in righteousness, and shall not return, that unto me every knee shall bow, every tongue shall swear. [Isaiah 45:23]

    By myself I swear, righteousness shall surely proceed out of my mouth; my words shall not be frustrated; that to me every knee shall bend, and every tongue shall swear by God, [Isaiah 45:23. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]
     

44) For Christ also pleased not himself; but, as it is written, The reproaches of them that reproached thee fell upon me.  [Romans 15:3]

    For the zeal of thy house hath eaten me up; And the reproaches of them that reproach thee are fallen upon me. [Psalms 69:9]

    For the zeal of thine house has eaten me up; and the reproaches of them that reproached thee are fallen upon me. [Psalms 69:9. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]
     

45) and that the Gentiles might glorify God for his mercy; as it is written, Therefore will I give praise unto thee among the Gentiles, And sing unto thy name. [Romans 15:9]

    Therefore I will give thanks unto thee, O the Lord, among the nations, And will sing praises unto thy name. [Psalms 18:49]

    Therefore will I confess to thee, O Lord, among the Gentiles, and sing to thy name. [Psalms 18:49. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]


46) but, as it is written, They shall see, to whom no tidings of him came, And they who have not heard shall understand. [Romans 15:21]

but as it is written, Things which eye saw not, and ear heard not, And which entered not into the heart of man, Whatsoever things God prepared for them that love him. [1 Corinthians 2:9]

    so shall he sprinkle many nations; kings shall shut their mouths at him: for that which had not been told them shall they see; and that which they had not heard shall they understand. [Isaiah 52:15]

    Thus shall many nations wonder at him; and kings shall keep their mouths shut: for they to whom no report was brought concerning him, shall see; and they who have not heard, shall consider. [Isaiah 52:15. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]
     

47) For it is written, I will destroy the wisdom of the wise, And the discernment of the discerning will I bring to nought.  [1 Corinthians 1:19]

    therefore, behold, I will proceed to do a marvellous work among this people, even a marvellous work and a wonder; and the wisdom of their wise men shall perish, and the understanding of their prudent men shall be hid. [Isaiah 29:14]

    Therefore behold I will proceed to remove this people, and I will remove them: and I will destroy the wisdom of the wise, and will hide the understanding of the prudent. [Isaiah 29:14. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]
     

48) that, according as it is written, He that glorieth, let him glory in the Lord. [1 Corinthians 1:31]

    Thus saith the Lord, Let not the wise man glory in his wisdom, neither let the mighty man glory in his might, let not the rich man glory in his riches; but let him that glorieth glory in this, that he hath understanding, and knoweth me, that I am the Lord who exerciseth lovingkindness, justice, and righteousness, in the earth: for in these things I delight, saith the Lord. [Jeremiah 9:23-24]

    Thus saith the Lord, Let not the wise man boast in his wisdom, and let not the strong man boast in his strength, and let not the rich man boast in his wealth; but let him that boasts boast in this, the understanding and knowing that I am the Lord that exercise mercy, and judgment, and righteousness, upon the earth; for in these things is my pleasure, saith the Lord. [Jeremiah 9:23-24. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]
     

49) but as it is written, Things which eye saw not, and ear heard not, And which entered not into the heart of man, Whatsoever things God prepared for them that love him. [1 Corinthians 2:9]

    For from of old men have not heard, nor perceived by the ear, neither hath the eye seen a God besides thee, who worketh for him that waiteth for him. [Isaiah 64:4]

    From of old we have not heard, neither have our eyes seen a God beside thee, and thy works which thou wilt perform to them that wait for mercy. [Isaiah 64:4. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]


50) For the wisdom of this world is foolishness with God. For it is written, He that taketh the wise in their craftiness:  [1 Corinthians 3:19]

    He taketh the wise in their own craftiness; And the counsel of the cunning is carried headlong. [Job 5:13]

    who takes the wise in their wisdom, and subverts the counsel of the crafty [Job 5:13. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]


51) For it is written in the law of Moses, Thou shalt not muzzle the ox when he treadeth out the corn. Is it for the oxen that God careth, [1 Corinthians 9:9]

    Thou shalt not muzzle the ox when he treadeth out the grain. [Deuteronomy 25:4]

    Thou shalt not muzzle the ox that treads out the corn. [Deuteronomy 25:4. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]


52) Neither be ye idolaters, as were some of them; as it is written, The people sat down to eat and drink, and rose up to play.  [1 Corinthians 10:7]

    And they rose up early on the morrow, and offered burnt-offerings, and brought peace-offerings; and the people sat down to eat and to drink, and rose up to play. [Exodus 32:6]

    And having risen early on the morrow, he offered whole burnt-offerings, and offered a peace-offering; and the people sat down to eat and drink, and rose up to play. [Exodus 32:6. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]


53) In the law it is written, By men of strange tongues and by the lips of strangers will I speak unto this people; and not even thus will they hear me, saith the Lord. [1 Corinthians 14:21]

    Nay, but by men of strange lips and with another tongue will he speak to this people; [Isaiah 28:11]

    by reason of the contemptuous words of the lips, by means of another language: for they shall speak to this people, saying to them, [Isaiah 28:11. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]


54) So also it is written, The first man Adam became a living soul. The last Adam became a life-giving spirit.  [1 Corinthians 15:45]

    And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul. [Genesis 2:7]

    And God formed the man of dust of the earth, and breathed upon his face the breath of life, and the man became a living soul. [Genesis 2:7. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]
     

55) But having the same spirit of faith, according to that which is written, I believed, and therefore did I speak; we also believe, and therefore also we speak; [2 Corinthians 4:13]

    I believe, for I will speak: I was greatly afflicted: [Psalms 116:10]

    I believed, wherefore I have spoken: but I was greatly afflicted. [Psalms 116:10. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]
     

56) as it is written, He that gathered much had nothing over; and he that gathered little had no lack.  [2 Corinthians 8:15]

    And when they measured it with an omer, he that gathered much had nothing over, and he that gathered little had no lack; they gathered every man according to his eating. [Exodus 16:18]

    And having measured the homer full, he that gathered much had nothing over, and he that had gathered less had no lack; each gathered according to the need of those who belonged to him. [Exodus 16:18. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]
     

57) as it is written, He hath scattered abroad, he hath given to the poor; His righteousness abideth for ever.  [2 Corinthians 9:9]

    He hath dispersed, he hath given to the needy; His righteousness endureth for ever: His horn shall be exalted with honor. [Psalms 112:9]

    He has dispersed abroad; he has given to the poor; his righteousness endures for evermore: his horn shall be exalted with honour. [Psalms 112:9. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]
     

58) For as many as are of the works of the law are under a curse: for it is written, Cursed is every one who continueth not in all things that are written in the book of the law, to do them.  [Galatians 3:10]

    Cursed be he that confirmeth not the words of this law to do them. And all the people shall say, Amen. [Deuteronomy 27:26]

    Cursed is every man that continues not in all the words of this law to do them: and all the people shall say, So be it. [Deuteronomy 27:26. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]


59) Christ redeemed us from the curse of the law, having become a curse for us; for it is written, Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree:  [Galatians 3:13]

    And if a man have committed a sin worthy of death, and he be put to death, and thou hang him on a tree; his body shall not remain all night upon the tree, but thou shalt surely bury him the same day; for he that is hanged is accursed of God; that thou defile not thy land which the Lord thy God giveth thee for an inheritance. [Deuteronomy 21:22-23]

    And if there be sin in any one, and the judgment of death be upon him, and he be put to death, and ye hang him on a tree: his body shall not remain all night upon the tree, but ye shall by all means bury it in that day; for every one that is hanged on a tree is cursed of God; and ye shall by no means defile the land which the Lord thy God gives thee for an inheritance. [Deuteronomy 21:22-23. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]
     

60) For it is written, Rejoice, thou barren that bearest not; Break forth and cry, thou that travailest not: For more are the children of the desolate than of her that hath the husband.  [Galatians 4:27]

    Sing, O barren, thou that didst not bear; break forth into singing, and cry aloud, thou that didst not travail with child: for more are the children of the desolate than the children of the married wife, saith the Lord. [Isaiah 54:1]

    Rejoice, thou barren that bearest not; break forth and cry, thou that dost not travail: for more are the children of the desolate than of her that has a husband: for the Lord has said, [Isaiah 54:1. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]
     

61) because it is written, Ye shall be holy; for I am holy.  [1 Peter 1:16]

    For I am the Lord your God: sanctify yourselves therefore, and be ye holy; for I am holy: neither shall ye defile yourselves with any manner of creeping thing that moveth upon the earth. [Leviticus 11:44]

    For I am the Lord your God; and ye shall be sanctified, and ye shall be holy, because I the Lord your God am holy; and ye shall not defile your souls with any of the reptiles creeping upon the earth. [Leviticus 11:44. Septuagint... Brenton's edition]

 

End Notes

[1] The Letter Of Aristeas. Vs. 38-39. R.H. Charles-Editor. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1913. Scanned and Edited by Joshua Williams Northwest Nazarene College, 1995 http://www.ccel.org/c/charles/otpseudepig/aristeas.htm

[2] ibid. Vs. 45-46.

[3] http://www.ccel.org/j/josephus/works/ant-12.htm  and http://www.earlyjewishwritings.com/text/josephus/ant12.html

[4] http://www.jewfaq.org/defs/talmud.htm

[5] The Translation of the Seventy. Orthodox Union. http://www.ou.org/chagim/roshchodesh/tevet/seventy.htm

[6] Website of St John's Orthodox Church in Colchester, England. http://www.orthodoxengland.org.uk/septuag.htm

[7] Augustine On Christian Doctrine. Book II, Chapter 15. http://www.ccel.org/ccel/augustine/doctrine.xvi_1.html

[8] Rickard, J (6 June 2007), Battle of Cos, 258 BC , http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_cos.html

[9] The new complete works of Josephus Jewish War. commentary by Paul L. Maier. Book 2, Chapter 18. Page 763. Kregel Academic & Professional; Revised edition (May 21, 1999). Or See The Perseus Project Texts
http://perseus.uchicago.edu/perseus-cgi/citequery3.pl?dbname=GreekTexts&getid=1&query=Joseph.%20BJ%202.477

[10] http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0001_0_00765.html]

[11] Bruce M. Metzger. Important Early Translations Of The Bible*  (January-March 1993)
http://faculty.gordon.edu/hu/bi/Ted_Hildebrandt/New_Testament_Greek/Text/Metzger-EarlyTranslations01-BS.pdf

[12] Henry Barclay Swete . An Introduction to the Old Testament in Greek:  [Paperback] Cambridge University Press; 1 edition (April 8, 2010) Pgs 315-316 OR The Septuagint As A Version. Chapter V. http://www.ccel.org/ccel/swete/greekot.iv.v.html

[13] ibid. Page 330

[14] Introduction to the New American Standard Bible. http://www.lockman.org/nasb/nasbprin.php

[15] Abba Seraphim. The Septuagint in the Oriental Orthodox Tradition.
http://britishorthodox.org/glastonburyreview/issue-120-the-septuagint-in-the-oriental-orthodox-tradition/

[16] http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/368081/Masoretic-text

[17] Gleason Archer, A Survey of Old Testament Introduction (Chicago, IL.: Moody Press, 1985), Pg 25

[18] Lawrence H. Schiffman. Reclaiming the Dead Sea Scrolls (Anchor Bible Reference Library) [Paperback] Anchor Bible (September 1, 1995). Page 172

[19] Peter Flint and James VanderKam. Meaning of the Dead Sea Scrolls: Their Significance For Understanding the Bible, Judaism, Jesus, and Christianity Pg 130. T&T Clark Int'l (July 10, 2005). Peter Flint is co-Director of the Dead Sea Scrolls Institute at Trinity Western University, British Columbia, and James VanderKam is Professor of Hebrew Scriptures, Department of Theology, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana).

[20] Bruce M. Metzger. Important Early Translations Of The Bible*  (January-March 1993)
http://faculty.gordon.edu/hu/bi/Ted_Hildebrandt/New_Testament_Greek/Text/Metzger-EarlyTranslations01-BS.pdf

[21] Josephus. Preface to Antiquities of the Jews III. http://www.ccel.org/j/josephus/works/ant-pref.htm

[22] Septuagint Research: Issues and Challenges in the Study of the Greek Jewish Scriptures. Edited by Wolfgang Kraus (Professor of New Testament Studies and Chair of New Testament at Universitat des Saarlandes in Saarbrucken, Germany) and R. Glenn Wooden (Associate Professor of Old Testament Studies at Acadia Divinity College in Wolfville, NS, Canada). [Septuagint and Cognate Studies Series. Paperback Pgs. 226-227]. Society of Biblical Literature (March 15, 2006)

[23] Ernst Würthwein. Page 53. The text of the Old Testament: an introduction to the Biblia Hebraica.  Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company; 2nd edition (December 13, 1994)

[24] http://orthodoxwiki.org/Septuagint

[25] http://www.hebrew4christians.com/Grammar/Introduction/Why_Hebrew_/why_hebrew_.html

[26] The Hebrew Language. http://www.myjewishlearning.com/culture/2/Languages/Hebrew.shtml



Footnote I

    "For before the Romans possessed their kingdom, while as yet the Macedonians held Asia, Ptolemy the son of Lagus, being anxious to adorn the library which he had founded in Alexandria, with a collection of the writings of all men, which were [works] of merit, made request to the people of Jerusalem, that they should have their Scriptures translated into the Greek language. And they—for at that time they were still subject to the Macedonians—sent to Ptolemy seventy of their elders, who were thoroughly skilled in the Scriptures and in both the languages, to carry out what he had desired. God having accomplished what He intended. But he, wishing to test them individually, and fearing lest they might perchance, by taking counsel together, conceal the truth in the Scriptures, by their interpretation, separated them from each other, and commanded them all to write the same translation. He did this with respect to all the books. But when they came together in the same place before Ptolemy, and 452 each of them compared his own interpretation with that of every other, God was indeed glorified, and the Scriptures were acknowledged as truly divine. For all of them read out the common translation [which they had prepared] in the very same words and the very same names, from beginning to end, so that even the Gentiles present perceived that the Scriptures had been interpreted by the inspiration of God." [Irenaeus, Against Heresies 3.21.2. http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf01.ix.iv.xxii.html] [PLACE IN TEXT]

     


Footnote II
Sadly, Dr. Jeffrey Khoo, Dean, Far Eastern Bible College and Seminary in Singapore, reports that

    "Metzger was a fervent promoter and leader of the ecumenical movement. The ecumenical New Revised Standard Version (NRSV) of 1977–1990 was Metzger’s baby. Without Metzger there would be no NRSV. Metzger saw no better way to promote ecumenism than to produce a Bible that would unite both Protestant and Catholic elements. Metzger was actively involved in the translation of the Apocrypha and even expanded it to include 3rd and 4th Maccabees and Psalm 151. He did this to please the Roman Catholic Church and the Greek Orthodox Church. In 1976, he personally presented the ecumenical edition of the RSV to Demetrios I, the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople and titular head of the several Orthodox Churches. In 1993, Metzger presented a Catholic edition of the NRSV to Pope John Paul II at the Vatican. Why did he do all this? PTS President, Iain Torrance, tells us why, "Bruce Metzger understood and was passionate about the significance of biblical translation for ecumenical dialogue. … It was important to him that Roman Catholic, Greek Orthodox, and Protestant Christians be able to have recourse to a common biblical text as an instrument of unity." [Dr. Jeffrey Khoo . Bruce Metzger and the Curse of Textual Criticism. http://www.biblefortoday.org/articles/metzger.htm] [PLACE IN TEXT]

Gnostic-Back

Apocrypha, Lost Books, Gnostic Gospels

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