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The Concept of Sin - The fact that we tend to view sin not as God views it is a gargantuan mistake. Why It Is So Important To Understand How The Bible Defines Sin. Imagining A World Without Sin, A Severe Warning - Hebrews 10:26-31
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Greater and Lesser Sins?
Although, all sin merits the death penalty, God's Word reveals that some sins are indeed worse than others.
Unintentional Transgressions (Shegâgâh)
The Bible makes it very clear that no one was acquitted by virtue of ignorance
Avôn and Pesha - Two COmmonly Used Word For Sin in The Old Testament
âvôn is usually translated iniquity, pesha usually translated transgression,
Châtâ (Heb.) and hamartano (Greek) - are used far more often
Each of Them Amounts To Missing The Mark
The Letter Vs. The Spirit of The Law
During His time on earth Jesus made it very clear that sin includes not only our physical actions, but our thoughts and attitudes.
Sins of Omission
The Scriptures tell us that we can not only sin by the things we do, but also by the things that we do not do.
Presumptuous, Intentional, or Deliberate Sin
However, the one thing we dare not forget is that deliberate acts of transgression were seen as "despising" the word of the Lord. Death not sacrifice was usually the punishment.
So Why Do We Sin?
The frustration we all face when confronted with sin, and our own inability to conquer it, was perfectly expressed by Paul
Since sin is defined as anything that falls short of the perfection of God, we probably sin far more than we ever imagined possible and are thus squarely in the cross hairs of God's justice. This knowledge should be enough to make us realize how much in need of a saviour we are. However, what we can never forget that repentance and salvation go hand in hand.
Greater and Lesser Sins?
It is without doubt that the Old Testament drew a distinction between sins committed mistakenly or inadvertently, those that occurred because of moral weakness, and those that were committed willfully or "with a high hand".
Although, all sin merits the death penalty, God's Word reveals that some sins are indeed worse than others. The more serious ones brought stiffer penalties and greater condemnation to the perpetrator. For example, the penalty for stealing and selling or killing livestock was restoration, with considerable interest. On the other hand, the punishment for abducting and selling another human was death.
He who kidnaps a man, whether he sells him or he is found in his possession, shall surely be put to death. (Exodus 21:16 NASB)
If a man steals an ox or a sheep and slaughters it or sells it, he shall pay five oxen for the ox and four sheep for the sheep. (Exodus 22:1 NASB)
Jesus' words to Pilate during His trial also confirmed that there are greater and lesser sins.
Jesus answered, "You would have no authority over Me, unless it had been given you from above; for this reason he who delivered Me to you has the greater sin." (John 19:11 NASB)
Unintentional Transgressions (Shegâgâh)
Many believe that if a sin is committed unintentionally, the perpetrator is innocent in God's eyes. However, the Bible makes it very clear that no one was acquitted by virtue of ignorance - even unintentional sins had to be atoned for by a blood sacrifice. In the following verses, the word unintentionally was translated from the Hebrew shegâgâh which means a mistake or inadvertent transgression. Ezekiel 34:6 gives us a sense of going astray without meaning to.
"My flock wandered (Heb. shegâgâh) through all the mountains and on every high hill; My flock was scattered over all the surface of the earth, and there was no one to search or seek for them."'" (Ezekiel 34:6 NASB)
If someone, through ignorance or perhaps a misunderstanding of the law, did what God had forbidden, or left undone what God had commanded, he could not use ignorance as an excuse and go about his daily business as if nothing had happened. Much to the contrary, as soon as the transgression or omission came to the person or person's attention , he or they were required to offer certain sacrifices - For example,
The Priests: the sacrifice for the inadvertent sins (Heb. Châtâ) of a priest was a bullock (Leviticus 4:2-3).
The Entire Congregation: A sin (Heb. Châtâ) committed by the entire congregation was also atoned for by a bull of the herd (Leviticus 4:13-14).
The Leaders: When one of the leader inadvertently committed a sin (Heb. Châtâ) he was required to "bring for his offering a goat, a male without defect." (Leviticus 4:22-24).
Individuals: Offending individuals were required to offer a female goat without defect. (Leviticus 4:27-29)
These rules applied both to the children of Israel, and to any stranger that lived in their midst.
You shall have one law for him who does anything unintentionally (Heb. shegâgâh), for him who is native among the sons of Israel and for the alien who sojourns among them. (Numbers 15:28-29 NASB).
It also has to be noted that the 35th chapter of the book of Numbers is largely devoted to the question of premeditated murder vs. manslaughter. Six cities were assigned as places of refuge to protect the person who unwittingly killed another, whereas those who committed intentional murder received the death penalty.
then you shall select for yourselves cities to be your cities of refuge, that the manslayer who has killed any person unintentionally (Heb. shâgâh) may flee there. (Numbers 35:11 NASB)
In the New Testament,
Jesus knew that the people who sentenced Him to death did not realize who He was - thus were sinning unintentionally. However this did not get them off the hook. As He died on the cross He prayed for his executioners. His words - "Father, forgive them; for they do not know what they are doing" (Luke 23:34) - tells us that they were accountable for their sins and needed to be forgiven.
Similarly, when Peter addressed the people amazed at the healing of the lame man who daily sat at the door of the temple, he told them that this miracle had been performed by Jesus whom they had delivered up, and denied before Pilate. Peter then added that when they chose to have the Holy One executed in place of a known criminal, they had acted in ignorance. However they needed to
Therefore repent (Gk. metanoeo) and return (Gk. epistrepho), so that your sins may be wiped away, in order that times of refreshing may come from the presence of the Lord; (Acts 3:19
The Old Testament Uses Several Different Words for Sin
Which brings us to the most commonly used Hebrew words for sin - Châtâ (used in the examples from Leviticus above), is usually translated sin, âvôn, usually translated iniquity, pesha usually translated transgression, and rûm, which literally means to lift up, is translated exalt, high-handedly etc.
There has to be some difference in the meaning of these words since two or more were sometimes used in the same sentence. For example, Job and Isaiah respectively said
How many are my iniquities (Heb. âvôn) and sins (Heb. chattâ'âh)? Make known to me my rebellion (Heb. pesha) and my sin (Heb. chattâ'âh ). (Job 13:23 NASB)
For our transgressions (Heb. pesha) are multiplied before You, and our sins (Heb. chattâ'âh) testify against us; For our transgressions Heb. pesha) are with us, and we know our iniquities: (Heb. âvôn) (Isaiah 59:12 NASB)
And, in Exodus 34:7, iniquity and transgression and sin are all mentioned as types of sins God will forgive. Note rûm is conspicuous by it absence.
keeps loving kindness for thousands, who forgives iniquity (Heb. âvôn), transgression (Heb. pesha) and sin (Heb. chattâ'âh) ; yet He will by no means leave the guilty unpunished, visiting the iniquity (Heb. âvôn) of fathers on the children and on the grandchildren to the third and fourth generations." (NASB)
See False Teachings on Generational Curses
Avôn and Pesha
Although there are opinions galore on the subject, I do not find that whenever the next two words are used the context necessarily enlightens us as to the exact meaning.
âvôn - Crooked or Perverse.
It seems clear that âvôn covers a multitude of sins, being equally used for the behavior of the Amorites, Sodom and Gomorrah, as well as Israel and Judah
Then in the fourth generation they will return here, for the iniquity (Heb. âvôn) of the Amorite is not yet complete." (Genesis 15:16 NASB)
Then He said to me, "The iniquity (Heb. âvôn) of the house of Israel and Judah is very, very great, and the land is filled with blood and the city is full of perversion; for they say, 'The Lord has forsaken the land, and the Lord does not see!' (Ezekiel 9:9 NASB)
pesha - To Break Away
Used quite often in the Old Testament pesha is usually translated transgression, i.e. to do something that is not allowed: to disobey a command or law. In other words, it seems to be a fairly general term. For example, at the dedication of the Temple, Solomon prayed
and forgive Your people who have sinned against You and all their transgressions (Heb. pesha) which they have transgressed (Heb. pâsha) against You, and make them objects of compassion before those who have taken them captive, that they may have compassion on them (1 Kings 8:50 NASB)
On Yom Kippur, the goat carried away into the wilderness all the iniquities (âvôn) and all the transgressions (Heb. pesha ) of the sons of Israel.
"Then Aaron shall lay both of his hands on the head of the live goat, and confess over it all the iniquities (Heb. âvôn) of the sons of Israel and all their transgressions (Heb. pesha ) in regard to all their sins; and he shall lay them on the head of the goat and send it away into the wilderness by the hand of a man who stands in readiness. "The goat shall bear on itself all their iniquities to a solitary land; and he shall release the goat in the wilderness. (Leviticus 16:21-22 NASB)
However, the Hebrew word most commonly translated 'sin' is châtâ.
Châtâ (Hebrew) Missing The Mark
Derivatives of and words related to châtâ are used literally hundreds of times in the Old Testament. That châtâ means to fail to achieve a certain result is made clear by two Old Testament verses that have nothing to do with sin. Neither the archers, nor Solomon and his mother were guilty of any moral wrong.
Out of all these people 700 choice men were left-handed; each one could sling a stone at a hair and not miss (Heb. châtâ ) (Judges 20:16 NASB)
Otherwise it will come about, as soon as my Lord the king sleeps with his fathers, that I and my son Solomon will be considered offenders (Heb. chattâ ) (1 Kings 1:21 NASB)
In other words the word that the Bible uses, far more than any other, to define sin literally means to miss the mark. However, if merely falling short of some mark does not sound very serious, note what happened when the nation of Israel made, then proceeded to worship, a golden calf. This early lapse into idolatry carried some serious consequences. The people who 'missed the mark' did not merely suffer having a tick made in the debit side of their ledger - Many of them died and the Lord threatened to completely blot them out of His book.
On the next day Moses said to the people, "You yourselves have committed (Heb. châtâ) a great sin (Heb. chattâ'âh) ; and now I am going up to the Lord, perhaps I can make atonement for your sin (Heb. chattâ'âh). "Then Moses returned to the Lord, and said, "Alas, this people has committed (Heb. châtâ) a great sin (Heb. chattâ'âh), and they have made a god of gold for themselves. "But now, if You will, forgive their sin Heb. chattâ'âh) --and if not, please blot me out from Your book which You have written!" The Lord said to Moses, "Whoever has sinned (Heb. châtâ) against Me, I will blot him out of My book. (Exodus 32:30-33 NASB)
And the matter didn't end there. On Moses' appeal, the Lord did not immediately inflict any further punishments, but instructed Moses to
"... go now, lead the people where I told you. Behold, My angel shall go before you; nevertheless in the day when I punish, I will punish them for their sin." (Exodus 32:34 NASB)
Hamartano (Greek) - Missing The Mark...
In the New Testament the word sin has been overwhelmingly translated from the Greek noun hamartia. The verb form (to sin) is Hamartano defined by Thayers as
1) to be without a share in, 2) to miss the mark, 3) to err, be mistaken, 4) to miss or wander from the path of uprightness and honour, to do or go wrong, 5) to wander from the law of God, violate God's law, sin
All of which makes it reasonably obvious that hamartano is the Greek counterpart of the Hebrew châtâ.
... What Mark?
So if, more often than not, sin means missing the mark, the obvious question is what this unseen mark is that we seem not to be able to hit?
The problem is that people usually judge themselves by standards that are either self-imposed or set by others but might fall very short when it comes to the benchmark set by the Bible. Paul used hamartano when he emphasized that the "mark" or target that the Scriptures refer to is the perfection of God Himself. He is the standard of holiness.
for all have sinned (Gk. hamartano) and fall short of the glory of God, (Romans 3:23 NASB)
Anything short of that absolute standard of good is 'missing the mark'. We might be satisfied with "goodness", but God demands perfection. And, for the record, other than Jesus Christ, no man has ever measured up to this standard. To make matters worse, the apostle James reminded his readers that if a person breaks even one of God's laws, he or she is, in effect, guilty of the whole (James 2:10). Quite obviously this makes the goal of keeping the law completely unachievable.
The Letter Vs. The Spirit of The Law.
Besides which, it is actually far more difficult now than it was in the days of the Old Testament. During His time on earth Jesus made it very clear that sin includes not only our physical actions, but our thoughts and attitudes.
He openly confronted the religious leaders (the scribes and Pharisees), who did a great job at keeping the letter of the Law maintaining a scrupulous adherence to what the words said. They not only kept the law, but introduced hundreds of rules and prohibitions of their own, which were their interpretation of God's law. These religious leaders were considered to be the epitome of righteousness and piety, thus it must have shocked many people when Jesus told them that their righteousness had to surpass that of the Scribes and Pharisees (Matthew 5:20).
Jesus clearly showed us that behind every Mosaic command lies a principle that transcends time and culture, and is therefore applicable to all God's people, regardless of when or where they live. It is the principle or the spirit of the law that God wishes us to live by - something the Scribes and Pharisees steadfastly ignored.
For example, since the Old Testament laws only forbade the actual act of adultery, lusting would not have been considered a violation of the law. However Jesus, including the lust that triggered the actual act of adultery, told them that even looking at a woman with desire constituted adultery (Vs. 27-30). It is one thing never to commit adultery, but quite another to control lust in the heart and mind.
This, and other examples served to show the intent of the law extended far beyond the exact wording. Perfect obedience to the law took place in thought, word, and deed.
See More Examples of Intent From Matthew 5
(from Chapter 3 of Jesus and the Law)
So the very obvious question that arises is why God gave man so many laws if they are impossible to keep? The answer is simple. The law was not given because God knew that it could be perfectly adhered to, but....
a. Unless there are clearly defined boundaries or standards, no one can possibly know that they have crossed over the line. In other words there has to be a law before someone can know they have broken it.
b. The law effectively put paid to man's cherished belief that he himself can do enough to merit salvation. Nothing but a clear demonstration of man's total inability to achieve the standard set by God, would cause him to realize that without a savior, he was doomed.
See The Introduction to Holiness
And, of course, there are the
Sins of Omission
The Scriptures tell us that we can not only sin by the things we do, but also by the things that we do not do. As James 4:17 says
Therefore, to one who knows the right thing to do and does not do it, to him it is sin.
In other words, we also miss the mark if we neglect to do some good that we are aware that we should be doing. In Matthew 25, Jesus elaborated on this principle in the parable of the sheep and goats (Vs. 31-46). His words to the goats were
"Depart from Me, accursed ones, into the eternal fire which has been prepared for the devil and his angels; for I was hungry, and you gave Me nothing to eat; I was thirsty, and you gave Me nothing to drink; I was a stranger, and you did not invite Me in; naked, and you did not clothe Me; sick, and in prison, and you did not visit Me.'
"Then they themselves also will answer, 'Lord, when did we see You hungry, or thirsty, or a stranger, or naked, or sick, or in prison, and did not take care of You?' Then He will answer them, 'Truly I say to you, to the extent that you did not do it to one of the least of these, you did not do it to Me.' "These will go away into eternal punishment, but the righteous into eternal life." (vs. 41-46)
Presumptuous, Intentional, or Deliberate Sin
However, the one thing we dare not forget is that deliberate acts of transgression were seen as "despising" the word of the Lord. Note that disobedience to priest and judge also carried serious consequences. When a serious intentional or presumptuous sin had been committed death not sacrifice was often the punishment.
'But the person who does anything defiantly (Heb. rûm), whether he is native or an alien, that one is blaspheming the Lord; and that person shall be cut off from among his people. 'Because he has despised the word of the Lord and has broken His commandment, that person shall be completely cut off; his guilt will be on him.'" (Numbers 15:30-31 NASB)
Rûm literally or figuratively means to raise or exalt. For example, it is used to describe Noah's ark being lifted up (Genesis 7:17) and Isaiah seeing the Lord sitting on a throne, lofty and exalted (Isaiah 6:1). Rûm is also applied to sin in the sense of someone 'lifting themselves up' in pride and self magnification. (The second example speaks of the antichrist).
But you said in your heart, 'I will ascend to heaven; I will raise (Heb. rûm) my throne above the stars of God, And I will sit on the mount of assembly In the recesses of the north". (Isaiah 14:13 NASB)
Then the king will do as he pleases, and he will exalt (Heb. rûm) and magnify himself above every god and will speak monstrous things against the God of gods; and he will prosper until the indignation is finished, for that which is decreed will be done. (Daniel 11:36 NASB)
Also pay attention to the words of the prophet Micah
Woe to those who scheme iniquity, Who work out evil on their beds! When morning comes, they do it, For it is in the power of their hands. They covet fields and then seize them, And houses, and take them away. They rob a man and his house, A man and his inheritance. Therefore thus says the Lord, "Behold, I am planning against this family a calamity From which you cannot remove your necks; And you will not walk haughtily (Heb. rôm), For it will be an evil time. (Micah 2:1-3 NASB) Note: rôm is a derivative of rûm
See Footnote for sins that carried the ultimate penalty.
The Leaders were certainly not immune from immediate and serious consequences were they to knowingly disobey the Lord.
Nadab and Abihu, the sons of Aaron, the first High Priest of Israel were, in many respects, very privileged. They however, seriously transgressed against the Lord which resulted in instant death. (Leviticus 10:1-2) See The Sons of Aaron
King Saul's failure to totally destroy the Amalekites as God had commanded resulted in him losing the kingdom (1 Samuel 15).
Although Miriam was a prophetess and Aaron the high priest, God's anger was kindled when they spoke out against Moses. Miriam was smitten with leprosy, but later restored through Moses' intercession.
As Russell Kelly writes
"The judicial punishment of presumptuous sins explains why God did not command a sacrifice when Aaron allowed the golden calves to be made (Ex. 32), when Moses struck the rock (Num. 20), when Achan was caught stealing (Josh. 7), and when David was declared guilty of murder (2 Sam. 12). The guilty persons "bore their own iniquity." (See Num. 5:31; 30:15; Ez. 18:20.)" 
The point being that the sacrifices were meant to be offered by those that had realized they had inadvertently sinned and those that had sinned in weakness, but had since repented. In other words, the regular sin or guilt offerings demonstrated the contrite sinner's desire for forgiveness. On Yom Kippur, the day of atonement, God demonstrated His willingness to deal with sin that had been repented of.
Arrogant sinners, on the other hand, are neither repentant nor do they seek atonement, and God does not forgive them.
So Why Do We Sin?
The frustration we all face when confronted with sin, and our own inability to conquer it, was perfectly expressed by Paul, who said...
For the flesh sets its desire against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh; for these are in opposition to one another, so that you may not do the things that you please. (Galatians 5:17 NASB)
For I know that nothing good dwells in me, that is, in my flesh; for the willing is present in me, but the doing of the good is not. For the good that I want, I do not do, but I practice the very evil that I do not want. (Romans 7:18-19 NASB)
The believer often finds himself in what literally amounts to a life and death struggle, torn between two opposing choices. The temptation to sin on the one hand, and the desire live righteously on the other. Because of this many may wonder how they can possibly handle a lifetime of temptation. Others with a history of failure may despair of ever breaking habits that may have dominated them for years.
See Persistent Sin... The Battle Between The Flesh and The Spirit
Since sin is defined as anything that falls short of the perfection of God, we probably sin far more than we ever imagined possible and are thus squarely in the cross hairs of God's justice. This knowledge should be enough to make us realize how much in need of a saviour we are, and lead us to the forgiveness bought for us by Christ's death on the cross. See Salvation
But we can never forget that repentance and salvation go hand in hand.
The word repentance is scarcely ever heard in most churches today. Instead the message heard from too many pulpits has been watered down to just 'believe' and you'll be saved. Yet repentance is presented as an absolute requirement for forgiveness in the Old Testament, as well as in the New. Scripture presents Repentance and Faith as two sides of the same coin. In short, you can't believe without truly repenting.
As Jesus said
Now on the same occasion there were some present who reported to Him about the Galileans whose blood Pilate had mixed with their sacrifices. And Jesus said to them, "Do you suppose that these Galileans were greater sinners than all other Galileans because they suffered this fate? "I tell you, no, but unless you repent, you will all likewise perish. "Or do you suppose that those eighteen on whom the tower in Siloam fell and killed them were worse culprits than all the men who live in Jerusalem? "I tell you, no, but unless you repent, you will all likewise perish." (Luk 13:1-5)
This fundamental shift in theology was first introduced in Matthew 4:17, which says "From that time Jesus began to preach and to say, 'Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand". Repent, translated from the Greek metanoia that emphasizes the idea of a radical change in one's attitude toward sin and God.
While repentance involves confessing our known sins, we also need to pray for the Spirit's help in bringing to light our unintentional and/or hidden sins (that we may not even realize exist). As king David once prayed ...
Search me, O God, and know my heart; Try me and know my anxious thoughts; And see if there be any hurtful way in me, And lead me in the everlasting way. (Psalms 139:23-24 NASB)
See Repentance ...The Missing Message
Do not be fooled by the watered down Gospel message of “just “believe and be saved”, heard in so many churches today. Scripture presents Repentance and Faith not as the same thing, but literally as two sides of the same coin.
Also See Is The Sinners Prayer Effective?
Our sense of safety can not come from simply saying a prayer. The goal should never be getting someone to pray a prayer, but rather to follow Jesus. When we emphasize deciding for Christ, instead of living for Him, we often get spiritual miscarriages instead of spiritual births.
Original Sin.. Fact or Fable?
Most Christians who profess to believe in the doctrine of original sin are ignorant of exactly what its teachings really are. They are ignorant of the fact that the doctrine has not always existed. They are ignorant of the fact that it evolved, that it had its roots in a heathen philosophy, and that it was made a dogma of the Roman Catholic Church in the 5th century A.D. They are ignorant of the fact that it is only a theory, and that there is really not one but several differing theories that have evolved and come down to us in the church. They are also ignorant of the fact that the Bible passages used as proof-texts for this doctrine have been taken out of context and tortured into teaching a doctrine that is completely foreign to the Bible.
Note: Leviticus 26 lists the blessings that the nation would enjoy if they walked in the Lord's statutes and kept His. It also losts commandments the formidable punishments that the Lord would bring upon the people who did not.
Blaspheming the Lord: Moreover, the one who blasphemes the name of the Lord shall surely be put to death; all the congregation shall certainly stone him. The alien as well as the native, when he blasphemes the Name, shall be put to death. (Leviticus 24:16 NASB)
Profaning The Sabbath: 'Therefore you are to observe the Sabbath, for it is holy to you. Everyone who profanes it shall surely be put to death; for whoever does any work on it, that person shall be cut off from among his people. (Exodus 31:14 NASB) Numbers 15:32-36 relates the story of a man who was put to death for gathering sticks on the Sabbath. [See Does Picking Up Sticks Deserve the Death Penalty?
Sorcery: You shall not allow a sorceress to live. (Exodus 22:18 NASB)
As for the person who turns to mediums and to spiritists, to play the harlot after them, I will also set My face against that person and will cut him off from among his people. (Leviticus 20:6 NASB)
Idolatry: "He who sacrifices to any god, other than to the Lord alone, shall be utterly destroyed. (Exodus 22:20 NASB)
Murder: If a man takes the life of any human being, he shall surely be put to death. (Leviticus 24:17 NASB)
Child Sacrifice: "You shall also say to the sons of Israel: 'Any man from the sons of Israel or from the aliens sojourning in Israel who gives any of his offspring to Molech, shall surely be put to death; the people of the land shall stone him with stones. 'I will also set My face against that man and will cut him off from among his people, because he has given some of his offspring to Molech, so as to defile My sanctuary and to profane My holy name. (Leviticus 20:2-3 NASB)
Note that the Lord also "cut off" the people who failed to put to death anyone who sacrificed a child to Molech...
If the people of the land, however, should ever disregard that man when he gives any of his offspring to Molech, so as not to put him to death, then I Myself will set My face against that man and against his family, and I will cut off from among their people both him and all those who play the harlot after him, by playing the harlot after Molech. (Leviticus 20:4-5 NASB)
Various Forms of Adultery 'If there is a man who commits adultery with another man's wife, one who commits adultery with his friend's wife, the adulterer and the adulteress shall surely be put to death. 'If there is a man who lies with his father's wife, he has uncovered his father's nakedness; both of them shall surely be put to death, their bloodguiltiness is upon them. 'If there is a man who lies with his daughter-in-law, both of them shall surely be put to death; they have committed incest, their bloodguiltiness is upon them... 'If there is a man who marries a woman and her mother, it is immorality; both he and they shall be burned with fire, so that there will be no immorality in your midst. (Leviticus 20:10-12, 14 NASB)
Homosexuality: If there is a man who lies with a male as those who lie with a woman, both of them have committed a detestable act; they shall surely be put to death. Their blood guiltiness is upon them. (Leviticus 20:13 NASB)
Bestiality: Whoever lies with an animal shall surely be put to death. (Exodus 22:19 NASB). 'If there is a man who lies with an animal, he shall surely be put to death; you shall also kill the animal. 'If there is a woman who approaches any animal to mate with it, you shall kill the woman and the animal; they shall surely be put to death. Their blood guiltiness is upon them. (Leviticus 20:15-16 NASB)
Incest: 'If there is a man who takes his sister, his father's daughter or his mother's daughter, so that he sees her nakedness and she sees his nakedness, it is a disgrace; and they shall be cut off in the sight of the sons of their people. He has uncovered his sister's nakedness; he bears his guilt. (Leviticus 20:17 NASB
Disobedience to priest and judge: The man who acts presumptuously by not listening to the priest who stands there to serve the Lord your God, nor to the judge, that man shall die; thus you shall purge the evil from Israel. (Deuteronomy 17:12 NASB)
When Korah and a company of men accused Moses and Aaron of taking too much upon themselves, and challenged their right to the privileges of the priesthood, the earth opened its mouth, and swallowed them and their households up, and they "went down alive into Sheol". (Numbers 16)
 Wayne Jackson. Christian Courier. A Realistic Look at Sin. http://www.christiancourier.com/articles/458-a-realistic-look-at-sin
 Cathy Lynn Grossman, USA Today. Has the 'notion of sin' been lost? http://www.usatoday.com/news/religion/2008-03-19-sin_N.htm
 Albert Mohler. Has the Notion of Sin Disappeared? http://www.albertmohler.com/2008/03/25/has-the-notion-of-sin-disappeared/
 Russell Kelly Proclamation! Magazine / 2010 / April May June / Does Blood Defile The Tabernacle?